Objectives Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a serious autoimmune disease often resulting in major end-organ damage and increased mortality. Currently, no data exists focussing on the presentation, long-term management and progression of SLE in the Australian paediatric population. We conducted the first Australian longitudinal review of childhood SLE, focussing on response to treatment and outcomes. Methods Detailed clinical and laboratory data of 42 children diagnosed with SLE before 16 years from 1998 to 2018 resident in Western Australia was collected. Data was collected at diagnosis and key clinical review time points and compared using the Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) criteria. End organ damage was assessed against Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI). Incidence rates of disease complications and end organ damage were determined. Results Of the 42 children, 88% were female with average age at diagnosis of 12.5 years. Indigenous Australians were over represented with an incidence rate 18-fold higher than non-Indigenous, although most children were Caucasian, reflecting the demographics of the Australian population. Median duration of follow-up was 4.25 years. On final review, 28.6% had developed cumulative organ damage as described by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (incidence rate: 0.08/PY (95% CI 0.04–0.14)), and one child died. Twenty-nine children had renal involvement (incidence rate: 0.38/PY (95% CI 0.26–0.56)). Of the 27 patients with biopsy proven lupus nephritis, 70% had Class III or IV disease. Average length of prednisolone use from diagnosis was 32.5 months. Hydroxychloroquine ( n = 36) and mycophenolate mofetil ( n =21) were the most widely used steroid sparing agents. 61.9% received rituximab and/or cyclophosphamide. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal retrospective review of Australian children with SLE, with a markedly higher incidence in Indigenous children. Although improving, rates of end organ complications remain high, similar to international cohort outcomes. Longitudinal multi-centre research is crucial to elucidate risk factors for poor outcomes, and identifying those warranting early more aggressive therapy.
Enhanced surveillance for dengue virus (DENV) infections in Italy has been implemented since 2012, with annual reports from the National Health Institute. In this study, we summarize available evidence on the epidemiology of officially notified DENV infections from 2010–2021. In total, 1043 DENV infection cases were diagnosed, and most of them occurred in travelers, with only 11 autochthonous cases. The annual incidence rates of DENV infections peaked during 2019 with 0.277 cases per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.187–0.267), (age-adjusted incidence rate: 0.328, 95% CI 0.314–0.314). Cases of DENV were clustered during the summer months of July (11.4%), August (19.3%), and September (12.7%). The areas characterized by higher notification rates were north-western (29.0%), and mostly north-eastern Italy (41.3%). The risk for DENV infection in travelers increased in the time period 2015–2019 (risk ratio [RR] 1.808, 95% CI 1.594–2.051) and even during 2020–2021 (RR 1.771, 95% CI 1.238–2.543). Higher risk for DENV was additionally reported in male subjects compared with females subjects, and aged 25 to 44 years, and in individuals from northern and central Italy compared to southern regions and islands. In a multivariable Poisson regression model, the increased number of travelers per 100 inhabitants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.065, 95% CI 1.036–1.096), the incidence in other countries (IRR 1.323, 95% CI 1.165–1.481), the share of individuals aged 25 to 44 years (IRR 1.622, 95% CI 1.338–1.968), and foreign-born residents (IRR 2.717, 95% CI 1.555–3.881), were identified as effectors of annual incidence. In summary, although the circulation of DENV remains clustered among travelers, enhanced surveillance is vital for the early detection of human cases and the prompt implementation of response measures.
Dengue is a disease with major impacts on public health in tropical and subtropical countries. In Europe, in the past decade, few autochthonous outbreaks were described.
We aimed to identify factors associated with frequency of dengue virus infection among European travellers and at assessing how surveillance data could support preparedness against autochthonous outbreaks within Europe.
We performed a descriptive analysis of travel-related dengue cases reported by European countries from 2015 through 2019. Using flight passenger data, we calculated travellers’ infection rates (TIR). We investigated the following associations: (i) between TIR and incidence rate in selected countries of infection and (ii) between number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks within Europe.
There were 11,478 travel-related dengue cases and the TIR was 2.8 cases per 100,000 travellers. Most cases were infected in Asia (71%), predominantly in south-eastern Asia. The TIR was highest among travellers returning from Asia (6.1/100,000). There was an association between the incidence rate in the country of infection and the TIR but no association between the number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks in Europe.
The likelihood of infection in travellers is a function of the ongoing epidemiological situation in the country of exposure. The number of travel-related cases alone is not sufficient to estimate the likelihood of autochthonous outbreaks where vectors are present in Europe. Additional contributing factors such as adequate vectorial capacity and suitable environmental conditions are required.
Neonatal inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) are closely associated with early neonatal death and abnormal growth and development. Increasing attention has been paid to IMDs because of their high incidence and diversity. However, there are no reports about the incidence of IMDs in Changsha, China. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the screening results of neonates to evaluate the characteristics of IMDs in the area. From January 2016 to December 2020, 300,849 neonates were enrolled for expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry in the Neonatal Disease Screening Center of the Changsha Hospital for Maternal & Child Health Care. Newborns with mild initial results were recalled for repeated tests; if the second test was still positive, the patient was referred for confirmatory tests. A total of 71 confirmed cases were identified in our study, with an incidence rate of 1:4,237. There were 28 cases of amino acid metabolic disorders, representing 39.44% of the IMDs diagnosed, with an incidence rate of 1:10,745. Twelve newborns were diagnosed with organic acid metabolic disorders, accounting for 16.66% of IMDs, with an incidence rate of 1:25,071. There were 31 cases of fatty acid oxidation disorders, representing 43.05% of IMDs, with an incidence rate of 1:9,705. Overall, 14 types of IMDs were found in Changsha. The most common disorders in the region were primary carnitine deficiency, hyperphenylalaninemia and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Their incidence rate is respectively 1:13,675, 1:16,714 and 1:42,978. The mutations in PAH, SLC22A5, and ACADS are the leading causes of IMDs in this area. This study demonstrates the importance of utilizing MS/MS in IMD screening for early diagnosis and treatment. This strategy may be used for prenatal genetic counseling to avoid irreversible growth and intellectual development disorders in children.
Background: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting individuals younger than 18 years of age. We sought to characterize the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with POMS in Isfahan, Iran, from April 1997 to March 2020.
Methods: The medical records of patients with POMS in the databases of Isfahan Department of Public Health and Isfahan Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) were retrospectively reviewed. The 2006 and 2016 Isfahan Province population censuses were used as reference values for assessing the temporal trend of POMS.
Results: From April 1997 to March 2020, 509 individuals under18 years of age were diagnosed with POMS in Isfahan. 404 of these patients (79.4%) were girls, and 105 patients (20.6%) were boys (a female to male ratio of 3.85:1). Most of the patients (83%) were monosymptomatic at onset, with optic neuritis and brainstem-cerebellar disorders being the most frequent initial presentations. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age at disease diagnosis was 15.8 ± 2.5 years (ranging from 3 to 18, mode = 18).From April 2019 to March 2020, the crude prevalence and the crude incidence rate of the POMS were 5.42 per 100000 and 1.86 per 100000, respectively. Poisson regression analysis revealed a 3.4% increase in the incidence rate of POMS from April 1997 to March 2020 [relative rate:1.034, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.021-1.048].
Conclusion: The female to male ratio in our cohort was significantly higher than any other studies conducted previously. The high female to male ratio and increasing incidence of the disease suggest increasing regionalization of care.
Merujuk masalah kanker payudara ini maka perlu dilakukan upaya deteksi dini kanker payudara. Upaya penanggulangan kanker payudara telah dilaksanakan oleh Pemerintah Indonesia secara khusus melalui program deteksi dini kanker pada perempuan Indonesia untuk kanker payudara bersamaan dengan program deteksi dini kanker leher rahim. Upaya deteksi dini Kanker Payudara adalah upaya untuk mendeteksi dan mengidentifikasi secara dini adanya Kanker Payudara atau tidak, sehingga diharapkan dapat diterapi dengan teknik yang dampak fisiknya kecil dan punya peluang lebih besar untuk sembuh.
Kanker merupakan salah satu penyakit tidak menular yang menjadi masalah keschatan masyarakat di Indonesia maupun di dunia. Angka kematian di dunia disebabkan oleh penyakit kanker dan merupakan pembunuh nomor dua setelah penyakit kardiovaskular, yakni 12% Kanker payudara merupakan keganasan pada jaringan payudara yang dapat berasal dari epitel duktus maupun lobulusnya. Kanker payudara merupakan salah satu jenis kanker terbanyak di Indonesia Kanker payudara menduduki peringkat kedua setelah kanker leher rahim yang menyerang kaum wanita di seluruh dunia. Menurut GLOBOCAN 2012 angka kejadian kanker payudara tertinggi di ASEAN dimiliki oleh Indonesia yaitu sebesar 48.998 dan 40.3 per 100.000 wanita (AISR Age Standardize Incidence Rate), diikuti oleh Filipina sebesar 18.327 (47), Thailand 13.653 (293) dan Malaysia sebanyak 5.410 (38.7) Jumlah kasus penderita kanker payudara di Sumatera Utara sebesar 2.682 per 100.000 dengan prevalensi diagnosis 0,4%.
Data yang diperoleh dari penelitian memiliki responden penelitian sebanyak 98 sampel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi, didapatkan hasil penelitian mengenai "Hubungan tingkat pengetahuan tentang kanker payudara terhadap perilaku SADARI pada mahasiswi FK UMSU Angkatan 2020 sudah cukup. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan hasil presentasi tingkat pengetahuan tinggi 48,45%, sedang sebanyak 41,24% dan rendah sebanyak 10,31% Tingkat pengetahuan masing-masing mahasiswi berbeda-beda.
 Kementerian Kesehatan. Program nasional gerakan pencegahan dan deteksi dini kanker leher rahim dan kanker payudara
Little is known about the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD). We evaluated the occurrence of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in RMD patients and heathy subjects who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine.
We performed a telephone interview collecting any adverse event (AE) following immunization (AEFI) that occurred in RMD patients and healthy controls after the two doses of mRNA vaccine including common local reactogenicity and systemic events (for example, fever, fatigue/malaise, joint and muscle pain). We also investigated the onset of new signs or symptoms of the RMD after the vaccination.
We evaluated 126 patients with RMDs [105 females and 19 males, median age 51(IQR 17)] and 85 controls [62 females and 23 males, (median age 49 (20)]. Seventy patients (55.6%) were taking immunosuppressants, conventional synthetic (n=31, 43.3%) and/or biological [TNF inhibitors (n=49, 68.6%)], and 30 (23.8%) were taking hydroxychloroquine; treatment remained unchanged in 77% of patients. Eleven out of 126 patients and none of the 85 controls previously contracted COVID-19. The median follow-up from the completion of vaccination was 15 (3) weeks both in patients and controls. We reviewed 5 suspected cases confirming mild articular flares in 3 women (2.8) with inflammatory arthritis (2 psoriatic arthritis and 1 rheumatoid arthritis) while no disease reactivation was recorded in patients with connective tissue diseases; the incidence rate of RMD reactivation was 0.007 person/month. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed similar frequencies of local and systemic AEFI in patients and controls with no effect of therapies or previous COVID-19. Local reaction—pain in the injection site—was the most frequently reported AEFI both in RMD and controls (71% and 75% of all the AEFI, respectively) after the first dose. Overall, up to 66% of patients experienced at least one AEFI at the second dose and up to 62% in the control group. Most of AEFI occurred within 2 days of vaccine administration. Two RMD patients developed pauci-symptomatic COVID-19 after the first dose of vaccine.
The low incidence rate of disease reactivation and the similar AEFI occurrence compared to controls should reassure on mRNA vaccine safety in RMD patients.
AbstractBased on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.