animal health
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 541-560
Author(s):  
Silvia Cristina Maia Olimpio ◽  
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Sergio Castro Gomes ◽  
Antônio Cordeiro de Santana ◽  
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...  

The aim of this study was to analyze the production patterns present in rural properties producing cattle in the micro-regions that make up the state of Pará. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was applied to identify the patterns, and these data are used to evaluate correlation between the heterogeneity of rural properties and the environmental impact on the identified patterns. The theoretical contribution is based on discussions on global impacts of food production and environmental sustainability and the impacts of livestock production systems in Brazil and the Amazon. Survey data were taken from the 2017 Agricultural Census, available for the 144 municipalities in the state, and pooled into 22 micro-regions. Three patterns of rural properties were identified: the first related to conservation management practices and called transition management; the second highlights aspects associated with information technology and communication (ICT) and productivity called technical productive efficiency; the third indicates the importance of social organization and access to information called social participation. With these patterns, it was possible to develop the Traditional Performance Indicator (TPI), in which the micro-regions of São Félix do Xingu, Itaituba and Conceição do Araguaia were those with the highest values of this indicator, water protection practices are present in the properties, however, in precarious conditions, and conservation practices are rarely used. The correlation between heterogeneity, measured by the size of pasture area in each microregion, and the TPI is positive, strong and significant. In this transition context, public policies are essential to provide access to infrastructure, credit and good animal health and biotechnology practices


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 629-640
Author(s):  
Taiã Mairon Peixoto Ribeiro ◽  
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Thássia Silva Reis ◽  
Sebastiana Adriana Pereira Sousa ◽  
Lucas Marlon Freiria ◽  
...  

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. are protozoa that have a significant impact on animal health due to the diseases they cause in domestic and wild animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and Neospora spp. in cats from northern Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 180 cats in the municipality of Araguaína, Tocantins and used to evaluate the presence of anti-T. gondii and anti-Neospora spp. antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test, with a cutoff of 1:64 and 1:25, respectively. The association between infection and individual animal characteristics (age, sex, origin, breed, and clinical signs) was tested using univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that 48.3% (87/180) of the animals had anti-T. gondii (95% CI: 40.8%–55.90%) and 3.9% (7/180) had anti-Neospora spp. (95% CI: 1.6%–7.8%) antibodies. There was no association between age, sex, breed origin, clinical signs, and seropositivity for T. gondii. Cats of defined breeds were more likely to be infected by Neospora spp. (OR = 10.7). Therefore, we found a high rate of seropositivity for T. gondii and a high rate of occurrence of Neospora infections in cats from the Araguaína region. The exposure of the feline population to the studied coccidia indicates the need to monitor the feline population for these infections and underscores the importance of effective sanitary measures against such pathogens.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 889-894
Author(s):  
Nelson Jessé Rodrigues dos Santos ◽  
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Renan Bressianini do Amaral ◽  
Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves ◽  
Rogério Ribas Lange ◽  
...  

Bartonella is an emerging group of facultative intracellular bacteria causing circulatory and systemic disorders. Hosts for Bartonella are mostly mammals, specifically rodents, having a growing number of Bartonella species related to their infection. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are abundant native rodents of Brazil, commonly found in urban parks. In the present study, we aimed to perform molecular screening of capybaras for Bartonella spp. Blood samples were collected from 17 free-ranging animals captured in Paraná State, Southern Brazil. None of the collected samples tested positive for the Bartonella-nuoG gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), although all of them successfully amplified the mammal endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) gene. Additionally, all animals were infested exclusively by Amblyomma dubitatum ticks at the time of sampling. This study was part of an active surveillance program, which is critical for monitoring animal health status, particularly in capybaras.


2026 ◽  
Vol 74 (10) ◽  
pp. 6141-2026
Author(s):  
MARTA MARIA SOŁTYSIUK ◽  
JOANNA SZTEYN ◽  
AGNIESZKA WISZNIEWSKA-ŁASZCZYCH

The study has described the history of the research of Listeria, starting from 1924 when it was identified for the first time. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Listeria have been described. Furthermore, the occurrence of Listeria in the environment of humans and animals has been presented. Moreover, mechanisms and effectors that influence pathogenesis have been presented as well as the latest information about the extent of presence of listeriosis in European Union countries.


Author(s):  
A.S. Chernov ◽  
A.N. Minakov ◽  
E.V. Malyavina ◽  
A.S. Elfimov ◽  
G.B. Telegin

Background: Monitoring of sanitization of cage equipment is an essential function of any laboratory animal facilities, seeking to ensure the animal health and welfare. The purpose of the current study was to develop universal scale for monitoring sanitization through detection of residual ATP for the most effective process of sanitizing components of rodents micro- and macro-environment. Methods: Sterile pens and swabs for the HY-LiTE® Luminometer Instrument were used to measure ATP concentration (RLU) on the cleaned surface samples. We have examined the elements of the microenvironment (rodent and rabbit cage, cage wire meshes, feed separating pieces, water bottles with tips, houses, tunnels, IVC cage frames, cage tops and cage wire meshes). The assessed swab area on each of the surfaces was 10×10 cm. Result: We observed, that combined washing (cleaned manually and with automatic universal washers with detergent) gives the lowest RLU values. Monitoring of the quality of sanitization of equipment and surfacescan be carried out without the use of microbiological tests. Use of pre-washing allows increasing the service life of caging equipment. We have developed an assessment scale to monitor sanitizing, which can be recommended to scientific and breeding animal facilities for monitoring sanitization cage equipments.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Author(s):  
Moushumi Hazra ◽  
Lisa M. Durso

Domestic and industrial wastewater discharges harbor rich bacterial communities, including both pathogenic and commensal organisms that are antibiotic-resistant (AR). AR pathogens pose a potential threat to human and animal health. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), bacteria encounter environments suitable for horizontal gene transfer, providing an opportunity for bacterial cells to acquire new antibiotic-resistant genes. With many entry points to environmental components, especially water and soil, WWTPs are considered a critical control point for antibiotic resistance. The primary and secondary units of conventional WWTPs are not designed for the reduction of resistant microbes. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are viable wastewater treatment options with the potential for mitigating AR bacteria, their genes, pathogens, and general pollutants. Encouraging performance for the removal of AR (2–4 logs) has highlighted the applicability of CW on fields. Their low cost of construction, operation and maintenance makes them well suited for applications across the globe, especially in developing and low-income countries. The present review highlights a better understanding of the performance efficiency of conventional treatment plants and CWs for the elimination/reduction of AR from wastewater. They are viable alternatives that can be used for secondary/tertiary treatment or effluent polishing in combination with WWTP or in a decentralized manner.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xuechun Bai ◽  
Graham S. Plastow

AbstractDisease resilience, defined as an animal’s ability to maintain productive performance in the face of infection, provides opportunities to manage the polymicrobial challenge common in pig production. Disease resilience can deliver a number of benefits, including more sustainable production as well as improved animal health and the potential for reduced antimicrobial use. However, little progress has been made to date in the application of disease resilience in breeding programs due to a number of factors, including (1) confusion around definitions of disease resilience and its component traits disease resistance and tolerance, and (2) the difficulty in characterizing such a complex trait consisting of multiple biological functions and dynamic elements of rates of response and recovery from infection. Accordingly, this review refines the definitions of disease resistance, tolerance, and resilience based on previous studies to help improve the understanding and application of these breeding goals and traits under different scenarios. We also describe and summarize results from a “natural disease challenge model” designed to provide inputs for selection of disease resilience. The next steps for managing polymicrobial challenges faced by the pig industry will include the development of large-scale multi-omics data, new phenotyping technologies, and mathematical and statistical methods adapted to these data. Genome editing to produce pigs resistant to major diseases may complement selection for disease resilience along with continued efforts in the more traditional areas of biosecurity, vaccination and treatment. Altogether genomic approaches provide exciting opportunities for the pig industry to overcome the challenges provided by hard-to-manage diseases as well as new environmental challenges associated with climate change.


Author(s):  
Walter Leal Filho ◽  
Linda Ternova ◽  
Sanika Arun Parasnis ◽  
Marina Kovaleva ◽  
Gustavo J. Nagy

Climate change can have a complex impact that also influences human and animal health. For example, climate change alters the conditions for pathogens and vectors of zoonotic diseases. Signs of this are the increasing spread of the West Nile and Usutu viruses and the establishment of new vector species, such as specific mosquito and tick species, in Europe and other parts of the world. With these changes come new challenges for maintaining human and animal health. This paper reports on an analysis of the literature focused on a bibliometric analysis of the Scopus database and VOSviewer software for creating visualization maps which identifies the zoonotic health risks for humans and animals caused by climate change. The sources retained for the analysis totaled 428 and different thresholds (N) were established for each item varying from N 5 to 10. The main findings are as follows: First, published documents increased in 2009–2015 peaking in 2020. Second, the primary sources have changed since 2018, partly attributable to the increase in human health concerns due to human-to-human transmission. Third, the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia, Italy, and Germany perform most zoonosis research. For instance, sixty documents and only 17 countries analyzed for co-authorship analysis met the threshold led by the USA; the top four author keywords were “climate change”, “zoonosis”, “epidemiology”, and “one health;” the USA, the UK, Germany, and Spain led the link strength (inter-collaboration); the author keywords showed that 37 out of the 1023 keywords met the threshold, and the authors’ keyword’s largest node of the bibliometric map contains the following: infectious diseases, emerging diseases, disease ecology, one health, surveillance, transmission, and wildlife. Finally, zoonotic diseases, which were documented in the literature in the past, have evolved, especially during the years 2010–2015, as evidenced by the sharp augmentation of publications addressing ad-hoc events and peaking in 2020 with the COVID-19 outbreak.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Stephen Ranford ◽  
Paul Swan ◽  
Chikako van Koten

AbstractTextile consumer trends towards improved product safety and high environmental standards have significantly influenced regulators in key consumer markets. The apparel wool industry sector has responded to regulators, and for three decades the Australia and New Zealand wool industries have managed advancements in ectoparasiticides and improved sheep treatments targeting high environmental, animal health and welfare standards leading to safe wool products. Australian and New Zealand chemical residue data from greasy wool have been consolidated and analysed for organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroid, insect growth regulator, neonicotinoid, macrocyclic lactone and spinosad active. Trend analysis has been applied to time domain data to evaluate advancements in ectoparasiticide technology after revising environmental, animal health and welfare standards. Analysis shows impacts from technology improvement, regulatory change and compliance by sheep farmers meeting or exceeding published European Union residue limits for regulated ectoparasiticides namely organochlorine, organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroid and insect growth regulators. Implications from advancements in ectoparasiticide technology, industry management and regulatory measures, include healthy sheep growing in clean pastoral environments with evidence of reduced wool residue levels which complement high and rising proportions of Australian and New Zealand wool fibre meeting European Union Ecolabel criteria.


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