Acute Gastroenteritis
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Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 965
Marcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes ◽  
Gabriel Azevedo Alves Leitão ◽  
Alberto Ignácio Olivares Olivares ◽  
Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro Xavier ◽  
Romanul de Souza Bispo ◽  

Sapovirus is an important etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), mainly in children under 5 years old living in lower-income communities. Eighteen identified sapovirus genotypes have been observed to infect humans. The aim of this study was to identify sapovirus genotypes circulating in the Amazon region. Twenty-eight samples were successfully genotyped using partial sequencing of the capsid gene. The genotypes identified were GI.1 (n = 3), GI.2 (n = 7), GII.1 (n = 1), GII.2 (n = 1), GII.3 (n = 5), GII.5 (n = 1), and GIV.1 (n = 10). The GIV genotype was the most detected genotype (35.7%, 10/28). The phylogenetic analysis identified sapovirus genotypes that had no similarity with other strains reported from Brazil, indicating that these genotypes may have entered the Amazon region via intense tourism in the Amazon rainforest. No association between histo-blood group antigen expression and sapovirus infection was observed.

Brigida Stanyevic ◽  
Margherita Sepich ◽  
Samanta Biondi ◽  
Giampiero Igli Baroncelli ◽  
Diego Peroni ◽  

AbstractFew data are available on the prevalence and features of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized children in Italy, where specific rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the national vaccination plan in 2017. To evaluate vaccination effects on AGE epidemiology, we analysed data from children aged ≤ 18 years admitted for AGE at the University Hospital of Pisa in 2019, comparing them with those recorded in 2012. Demographical, clinical, diagnostic, and treatment data were collected reviewing medical records and were therefore compared. In 2019 and 2012, 86 (median age 2.5 years [IQR 1.4–5.9]) and 85 children (median age 2.3 years [IQR 1.3–5.1]) were respectively admitted with AGE. The most common symptoms were diarrhoea and vomiting; decreased skin turgor was more frequent in 2019 (54% and 34% respectively, p = 0.01). Viral infections were more common than bacterial ones; in 2019, a decrease in rotavirus infections (67% and 22%, p = 0.003) and an increase in adenovirus infections (50% and 10%, p = 0.002) and in the number of patients with negative stool testing (58% and 39%, p = 0.04) were found.Conclusions: Viral infections are the leading cause of AGE in hospitalized children in Italy. The introduction of rotavirus vaccines did not reduce the number of hospitalizations per year. Adenovirus and other non-routinely screened viruses may be undergoing a selection process making them common causative agents for AGE. What is Known:• Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide, especially < 5 years of age.• The introduction of specific vaccines may be changing its epidemiology.• Few data are available on acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Italy. What is New:• Viral infections are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Italy.• Specific vaccines are reducing rotavirus infections, but adenovirus and other non-routinely screened viruses may be undergoing a selection process making them common causative agents for gastroenteritis.

2021 ◽  
Ana C Silva Serra ◽  
Edivaldo CS Júnior ◽  
Jonas F Cruz ◽  
Patrícia S Lobo ◽  
Edvaldo TP Júnior ◽  

Aim: To perform a molecular analysis of rotavirus A (RVA) G3P[6] strains detected in 2012 and 2017 in the Amazon region of Brazil. Materials & methods: Eighteen RVA G3P[6] strains were collected from children aged under 10 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis, and partial sequencing of each segment genome was performed using Sanger sequencing. Results: Phylogenetic analysis showed that all G3P[6] strains had a DS-1-like genotype constellation. Two strains had the highest nucleotide identities with equine-like G3P[6]/G3P[8] genotypes. Several amino acid alterations in VP4 and VP7 neutralizing epitopes of equine-like RVA G3P[6] strains were observed in comparison with vaccine strains. Conclusion: These findings suggest that equine-like RVA G3P[6] strains have been circulating in the Amazon region of Brazil as a result of direct importation, and support natural RVA evolutionary mechanisms.

Maria Antonia De Francesco ◽  
Giovanni Lorenzin ◽  
Antonella Meini ◽  
Richard Fabian Schumacher ◽  
Arnaldo Caruso

Gastroenteritis is the second leading cause of death among infants and children worldwide. Our study shows that adenovirus types other than 40 and 41 might be related to acute gastroenteritis. Therefore, a novel approach using diagnostic methods able to detect all adenovirus types is desirable in order to overcome the limitations of the current techniques.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 1599
Nanci Santos-Ferreira ◽  
Jana Van Dycke ◽  
Johan Neyts ◽  
Joana Rocha-Pereira

Acute gastroenteritis caused by virus has a major impact on public health worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. The main culprits are rotaviruses, noroviruses, sapoviruses, astroviruses, and enteric adenoviruses. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of viral gastroenteritis. Here, we describe the antivirals that were identified as having in vitro and/or in vivo activity against these viruses, originating from in silico design or library screening, natural sources or being repurposed drugs. We also highlight recent advances in model systems available for this (hard to cultivate) group of viruses, such as organoid technologies, and that will facilitate antiviral studies as well as fill some of current knowledge gaps that hamper the development of highly efficient therapies against gastroenteric viruses.

Ran Zhuo ◽  
Xiaofeng Ding ◽  
Stephen B. Freedman ◽  
Bonita E. Lee ◽  
Samina Ali ◽  

Objectives: Sapovirus is increasingly recognized as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, however studies of prevalence, genetic diversity and strain-specific clinical implications have been scarce. Methods: To fill this knowledge gap, we used reverse transcription real-time PCR and sequencing of the partial major capsid protein VP1 gene to analyze stool specimens and rectal swabs obtained from 3347 children with AGE and 1355 asymptomatic controls (all <18 years old) collected between December 2014 and August 2018 in Alberta, Canada. Results: Sapovirus was identified in 9.5% (317/3347) of the children with AGE and 2.9% of controls. GI.1 (36%) was the predominant genotype identified, followed by GI.2 (18%), GII.5 (8%) and GII.3 (6%). Rare genotypes GII.1, GII.2, GV.1, GII.4, GIV.1, GI.3 and GI.7 were also seen. Sapovirus was detected year-round, peaking during the winter months of November to January. The exception was the 2016-2017 season when GI.2 overtook GI.1 as the predominant strain with a high detection rate persisting into April. We did not observe significant difference in the severity of gastroenteritis by genogroup or genotype. Repeated infection by sapovirus of different genogroups occurred in three controls who developed AGE later. Conclusions: Our data suggests that sapovirus is a common cause of AGE in children with high genetic diversity.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Madhuradhar Chrgondi ◽  
Ramya Deepthi Billa ◽  
Swathi Chacham ◽  
Shilpa Gurnurkar

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (28) ◽  
Zhihui Yang ◽  
Mark Mammel ◽  
Samantha Q. Wales

High-throughput sequencing is one of the approaches used for the detection of foodborne pathogens such as noroviruses. Long-read sequencing has advantages over short-read sequencing in speed, read length, and lower fragmentation bias, which makes it a potential powerful tool for the fast detection and identification of viruses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Raiana Scerni Machado ◽  
Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa ◽  
Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro ◽  
James Lima Ferreira ◽  
Jainara Cristina dos Santos Alves ◽  

AbstractOn the detection and identification of enteroviruses circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil: reply to Luchs, A. Comments on Detection and identification of enteroviruses circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Pará State, Northern Brazil (2010–2011).

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