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2022 ◽  
Vol 140 ◽  
pp. 106337
Zhaohao Zhang ◽  
Weizhuo Gan ◽  
Junjie Li ◽  
Zhenzhen Kong ◽  
Yanchu Han ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
S. Khan ◽  
S. N. Khan ◽  
M. Rauf ◽  
M. F. Khan ◽  

Abstract Rotavirus is the main infective agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children under the age of five years and causing significant morbidity as well as mortality throughout the world. The study was carried out to detect the prevalence rate, genotypes strain and risk factors of Rotavirus among the children of rural and urban areas of district Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 180 stool samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years from two major hospitals of Bannu from January to December (2015). The samples were analyzed by Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Rotavirus, positive samples were further processed for genotyping (G and P type) through specific PCR. Of the total, 41 (23%) samples were positive for Rotavirus. The most prevalent G genotypes found were: G3, G8, G9 (each 29%), followed by G10 (15%), and G11 (10%). Whereas the prevalent P genotypes were: P-8 (25%), P-4 and P-10 (each 20%), P-9 (15%), followed by P-6 and P-11 (each 10%). Moreover, Rotavirus infection was more prevalent in summer (23.73%) and winter (22.7%) than spring (20%) and autumn (21.4%). Rotavirus infection exhibited high frequency in June (14%), October (8%) and November (6%). It is concluded that Rotavirus is more prevalent in children and various genotypes (G and P) of Rotavirus are present in the study area. Lack of studies, awareness and rarer testing of Rotavirus are the principal reasons of virus prevalence in district Bannu, Pakistan.

Pedro López ◽  
María Aboy ◽  
Irene Muñoz ◽  
Iván Santos ◽  
Luis A. Marqués ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 430 ◽  
pp. 132738
Deyu Bao ◽  
Qiang Sun ◽  
Linsen Huang ◽  
Jie Chen ◽  
Jun Tang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Shiu-Ming Huang ◽  
Pin-Cing Wang ◽  
Pin-Cyuan Chen ◽  
Jai-Long Hong ◽  
Cheng-Maw Cheng ◽  

AbstractThe magnetization measurement was performed in the Bi0.3Sb1.7Te3 single crystal. The magnetic susceptibility revealed a paramagnetic peak independent of the experimental temperature variation. It is speculated to be originated from the free-aligned spin texture at the Dirac point. The ARPES reveals that the Fermi level lies below the Dirac point. The Fermi wavevector extracted from the de Haas–van Alphen oscillation is consistent with the energy dispersion in the ARPES. Our experimental results support that the observed paramagnetic peak in the susceptibility curve does not originate from the free-aligned spin texture at the Dirac point.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Cristina Florentina Chirila ◽  
Viorica Stancu ◽  
Georgia Andra Boni ◽  
Iuliana Pasuk ◽  
Lucian Trupina ◽  

AbstractFe (acceptor) and Nb (donor) doped epitaxial Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) films were grown on single crystal SrTiO3 substrates and their electric properties were compared to those of un-doped PZT layers deposited in similar conditions. All the films were grown from targets produced from high purity precursor oxides and the doping was in the limit of 1% atomic in both cases. The remnant polarization, the coercive field and the potential barriers at electrode interfaces are different, with lowest values for Fe doping and highest values for Nb doping, with un-doped PZT in between. The dielectric constant is larger in the doped films, while the effective density of charge carriers is of the same order of magnitude. An interesting result was obtained from piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) investigations. It was found that the as-grown Nb-doped PZT has polarization orientated upward, while the Fe-doped PZT has polarization oriented mostly downward. This difference is explained by the change in the conduction type, thus in the sign of the carriers involved in the compensation of the depolarization field during the growth. In the Nb-doped film the majority carriers are electrons, which tend to accumulate to the growing surface, leaving positively charged ions at the interface with the bottom SrRuO3 electrode, thus favouring an upward orientation of polarization. For Fe-doped film the dominant carriers are holes, thus the sign of charges is opposite at the growing surface and the bottom electrode interface, favouring downward orientation of polarization. These findings open the way to obtain p-n ferroelectric homojunctions and suggest that PFM can be used to identify the type of conduction in PZT upon the dominant direction of polarization in the as-grown films.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 630
Ji-Yeon Choy ◽  
Eun-Bee Jo ◽  
Chang-Joo Yim ◽  
Hae-Kyung Youi ◽  
Jung-Hoon Hwang ◽  

Research on stretchable strain sensors is actively conducted due to increasing interest in wearable devices. However, typical studies have focused on improving the elasticity of the electrode. Therefore, methods of directly connecting wire or attaching conductive tape to materials to detect deformation have been used to evaluate the performance of strain sensors. Polyaniline (PANI), a p-type semiconductive polymer, has been widely used for stretchable electrodes. However, conventional procedures have limitations in determining an appropriate metal for ohmic contact with PANI. Materials that are generally used for connection with PANI form an undesirable metal-semiconductor junction and have significant contact resistance. Hence, they degrade sensor performance. This study secured ohmic contact by adapting Au thin film as the metal contact layer (the MCL), with lower contact resistance and a larger work function than PANI. Additionally, we presented a buffer layer using hard polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and structured it into a dumbbell shape to protect the metal from deformation. As a result, we enhanced steadiness and repeatability up to 50% strain by comparing the gauge factors and the relative resistance changes. Consequently, adapting structural methods (the MCL and the dumbbell shape) to a device can result in strain sensors with promising stability, as well as high stretchability.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 163
Vitali Vasil’evich Starkov ◽  
Ekaterina Alexanrovna Gosteva ◽  
Dmitry Dmitry Zherebtsov ◽  
Maxim Vladimirovich Chichkov ◽  
Nikita Valerievich Alexandrov

This review presents the results of the local formation of nanostructured porous silicon (NPSi) on the surface of silicon wafers by anodic etching using a durite intermediate ring. The morphological and crystallographic features of NPSi structures formed on n- and p-type silicon with low and relatively high resistivity have also been investigated. The proposed scheme allows one to experiment with biological objects (for example, stem cells, neurons, and other objects) in a locally formed porous structure located in close proximity to the electronic periphery of sensor devices on a silicon wafer.

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