amyloid cascade
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Ciara Downey ◽  

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia, characterized by initial memory impairment and progressive cognitive decline. The exact cause of AD is not yet completely understood. However, the presence of neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is often cited as the main causative agent in AD pathogenesis. In accordance with the amyloid hypothesis, Aβ accumulation initially occurs 15-20 years prior to the development of clinical symptoms. Current therapies focus on the prodromal and preclinical stages of AD due to past treatment failures involving patients with mild to moderate AD. Passive immunization via exogenous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) administration has emerged as a promising anti-Aβ treatment in AD. This is reinforced by the recent approval of the mAb, aducanumab. mAbs have differential selectivity in their epitopes, each recognising different conformations of Aβ. In this way, various Aβ accumulative species can be targeted. mAbs directed against Aβ oligomers, the most neurotoxic species, are producing encouraging clinical results. Through understanding the process by which mAbs target the amyloid cascade, therapeutics could be developed to clear Aβ, prevent its aggregation, or reduce its production. This review examines the clinical efficacy evidence from previous clinical trials with anti-Aβ therapeutics, in particular, the mAbs. Future therapies are expected to involve a combined-targeted approach to the multiple mechanisms of the amyloid cascade in a particular stage or disease phenotype. Additional studies of presymptomatic AD will likely join ongoing prevention trials, in which mAbs will continue to serve as the focal point.

2022 ◽  
pp. 193-254
David V. Hansen ◽  
Brenan K. Cullimore ◽  
John C. Johanson ◽  
Wenhan Cheng

Prativa Sadhu ◽  
Srijani Sen ◽  
Catherine Vanlalhriatpuii ◽  

Neurodegenerative disorders are marked by the loss of brain neuron activity, resulting in gradual cognitive impairment. The effects of neurodegenerative diseases are severe in terms of pathology and the cost of patient care. The aged, in general, are the most vulnerable. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a brain ailment that causes cell degradation and is the leading cause of dementia, identified by a loss of thinking ability and independence in daily tasks. The amyloid cascade hypothesis, which attributes clinical signs/symptoms to an abundance of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, enhanced deposition into amyloid plaques, and eventually neuronal destruction, is one theory for pathogenesis AD. The use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in AD treatment is based on their favorable effects on the disease's functional, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. However, their involvement in AD pathogenesis is uncertain. This comprehensive review will provide an overview of AD, including the pathophysiology, causes, treatments, and future treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11931
Zhijun He ◽  
Guanying You ◽  
Qiong Liu ◽  
Nan Li

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an intractable neurodegenerative disease that leads to dementia, primarily in elderly people. The neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau protein has been demonstrated over the last two decades. In line with these findings, several etiological hypotheses of AD have been proposed, including the amyloid cascade hypothesis, the oxidative stress hypothesis, the inflammatory hypothesis, the cholinergic hypothesis, et al. In the meantime, great efforts had been made in developing effective drugs for AD. However, the clinical efficacy of the drugs that were approved by the US Food and Drug Association (FDA) to date were determined only mild/moderate. We recently adopted a vanadium compound bis(ethylmaltolato)-oxidovanadium (IV) (BEOV), which was originally used for curing diabetes mellitus (DM), to treat AD in a mouse model. It was shown that BEOV effectively reduced the Aβ level, ameliorated the inflammation in brains of the AD mice, and improved the spatial learning and memory activities of the AD mice. These finding encouraged us to further examine the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of BEOV in AD. In this review, we summarized the achievement of vanadium compounds in medical studies and investigated the prospect of BEOV in AD and DM treatment.

Eliana Cristina de Brito Toscano ◽  
Natalia Pessoa Rocha ◽  
Beatriz Noele Azevedo Lopes ◽  
Claudia Kimie Suemoto ◽  
Antonio Lucio Teixeira

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia worldwide. The definitive diagnosis of AD is clinicopathological and based on the identification of cerebral deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. However, the link between amyloid cascade and depositions of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) is still missing. In this scenario, inflammasomes might play a relevant role. Experimental models of AD have suggested that Aβ accumulation induces, through microglia, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This activation contributes to the dissemination of Aβ and p-tau, as well as to hyperphosphorylation of tau. Also in experimental models, NLPR1 promoted neuronal pyroptosis. There are neither comprehensive neuropathologic characterization, nor clinicopathologic studies evaluating the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in subjects with AD. Objective: The current mini-review aims to summarize recent and promising findings on the role of NLRP1 and NLRP3 signaling in the pathophysiology of AD. We also sought to highlight the knowledge gap in patients with AD, mainly the lack of clinicopathologic studies on the interaction among inflammasomes, Aβ/tau pathology, and cognitive decline.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 1247
Laura Ibanez ◽  
Carlos Cruchaga ◽  
Maria Victoria Fernández

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become a common disease of the elderly for which no cure currently exists. After over 30 years of intensive research, we have gained extensive knowledge of the genetic and molecular factors involved and their interplay in disease. These findings suggest that different subgroups of AD may exist. Not only are we starting to treat autosomal dominant cases differently from sporadic cases, but we could be observing different underlying pathological mechanisms related to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, immune dysfunction, and a tau-dependent pathology. Genetic, molecular, and, more recently, multi-omic evidence support each of these scenarios, which are highly interconnected but can also point to the different subgroups of AD. The identification of the pathologic triggers and order of events in the disease processes are key to the design of treatments and therapies. Prevention and treatment of AD cannot be attempted using a single approach; different therapeutic strategies at specific disease stages may be appropriate. For successful prevention and treatment, biomarker assays must be designed so that patients can be more accurately monitored at specific points during the course of the disease and potential treatment. In addition, to advance the development of therapeutic drugs, models that better mimic the complexity of the human brain are needed; there have been several advances in this arena. Here, we review significant, recent developments in genetics, omics, and molecular studies that have contributed to the understanding of this disease. We also discuss the implications that these contributions have on medicine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (16) ◽  
pp. 8556
Lili Arabuli ◽  
Igor A. Iashchishyn ◽  
Nina V. Romanova ◽  
Greta Musteikyte ◽  
Vytautas Smirnovas ◽  

The amyloid cascade is central for the neurodegeneration disease pathology, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and remains the focus of much current research. S100A9 protein drives the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in these diseases. DOPA and cyclen-based compounds were used as amyloid modifiers and inhibitors previously, and DOPA is also used as a precursor of dopamine in Parkinson’s treatment. Here, by using fluorescence titration experiments we showed that five selected ligands: DOPA-D-H-DOPA, DOPA-H-H-DOPA, DOPA-D-H, DOPA-cyclen, and H-E-cyclen, bind to S100A9 with apparent Kd in the sub-micromolar range. Ligand docking and molecular dynamic simulation showed that all compounds bind to S100A9 in more than one binding site and with different ligand mobility and H-bonds involved in each site, which all together is consistent with the apparent binding determined in fluorescence experiments. By using amyloid kinetic analysis, monitored by thioflavin-T fluorescence, and AFM imaging, we found that S100A9 co-aggregation with these compounds does not hinder amyloid formation but leads to morphological changes in the amyloid fibrils, manifested in fibril thickening. Thicker fibrils were not observed upon fibrillation of S100A9 alone and may influence the amyloid tissue propagation and modulate S100A9 amyloid assembly as part of the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in neurodegenerative diseases.

2021 ◽  
Christian Haass ◽  
Estrella Morenas-Rodriguez ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Brigitte Nuscher ◽  
Nicolai Franzmeier ◽  

Abstract Therapeutic modulation of TREM2-dependent microglial function provides an additional strategy to slow progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although studies on animal models suggest that TREM2 is protective, the trigger of increased TREM2 expression during disease progression and its clinical and pathological consequences in AD remain unclear. We measured longitudinally soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) as a surrogate marker for protective TREM2-signalling in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) observational study. In mutation carriers (MC), the longitudinal sTREM2 increase followed the earliest aggregation of Aβ42 captured by CSF-Aβ42 decrease, but not yet by Pittsburg compound-B Positron Emission Tomography (PiB-PET). Higher sTREM2 increase rates provided protection from Aβ-deposition, whereas lower rates enhanced p-tau increase associated with PiB-PET increase. Moreover, presymptomatic MC with high or low sTREM2 increase rates have opposite associations between CSF Aβ42 and PiB-PET longitudinal changes, suggesting that TREM2 modifies Aβ plaque deposition and compaction. Finally, higher sTREM2 increase rates protected from cortical shrinkage and cognitive decline. Our findings position the TREM2 response within the amyloid cascade right after the first pathological changes in Aβ42 aggregation, support ongoing efforts to develop TREM2 modulating therapies, and predict a very early window for therapeutic intervention.

Timothy Daly ◽  
Marion Houot ◽  
Anouk Barberousse ◽  
Amélie Petit ◽  
Stéphane Epelbaum

Background: Therapeutic research into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been dominated by the amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) since the 1990s. However, targeting amyloid in AD patients has not yet resulted in highly significant disease-modifying effects. Furthermore, other promising theories of AD etiology exist. Objective: We sought to directly investigate whether the ACH still dominates the opinions of researchers working on AD and explore the implications of this question for future directions of research. Methods: During 2019, we undertook an international survey promoted with the help of the Alzheimer’s Association with questions on theories and treatments of AD. Further efforts to promote a similar study in 2021 did not recruit a significant number of participants. Results: 173 researchers took part in the 2019 survey, 22% of which held “pro-ACH” opinions, tended to have more publications, were more likely to be male, and over 60. Thus, pro-ACH may now be a minority opinion in the field but is nevertheless the hypothesis on which the most clinical trials are based, suggestive of a representation bias. Popular vote of all 173 participants suggested that lifestyle treatments and anti-tau drugs were a source of more therapeutic optimism than anti-amyloid treatments. Conclusion: We propose a more democratic research structure which increases the likelihood that promising theories are published and funded fairly, promotes a broader scientific view of AD, and reduces the larger community’s dependence on a fragile economic model.

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