experimental models
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Mosbah Ben Said ◽  
Ahmed Ouamane

Abstract Labyrinth weirs are commonly used to increase the capacity of existing spillways and provide more efficient spillways for new dams due to their high specific discharge capacity compared to the linear weir. In the present study, experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to improve the rectangular labyrinth weir performance. In this context, four configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the entrance shape and alveoli width on its discharge capacity. The experimental models, three models of rectangular labyrinth weir with rounded entrance and one with flat entrance, were tested in rectangular channel conditions for inlet width to outlet width ratios (a/b) equal to 0.67, 1 and 1.5. The results indicate that the rounded entrance increases the weir efficiency by up to 5%. A ratio a/b equal to 1.5 leads to an 8 and 18% increase in the discharge capacity compared to a/b ratio equal to 1 and 0.67, respectively. In addition, a numerical simulation was conducted using the opensource CFD OpenFOAM to analyze and provide more information about the flow behavior over the tested models. A comparison between the experimental and numerical discharge coefficient was performed and good agreement was found (Mean Absolute Relative Error of 4–6%).

Raphaël Richert ◽  
Maxime Ducret ◽  
Brigitte Alliot‐Licht ◽  
Mourad Bekhouche ◽  
Stéphanie Gobert ◽  

Damien Depannemaecker ◽  
Anton Ivanov ◽  
Davide Lillo ◽  
Len Spek ◽  
Christophe Bernard ◽  

AbstractThe majority of seizures recorded in humans and experimental animal models can be described by a generic phenomenological mathematical model, the Epileptor. In this model, seizure-like events (SLEs) are driven by a slow variable and occur via saddle node (SN) and homoclinic bifurcations at seizure onset and offset, respectively. Here we investigated SLEs at the single cell level using a biophysically relevant neuron model including a slow/fast system of four equations. The two equations for the slow subsystem describe ion concentration variations and the two equations of the fast subsystem delineate the electrophysiological activities of the neuron. Using extracellular K+ as a slow variable, we report that SLEs with SN/homoclinic bifurcations can readily occur at the single cell level when extracellular K+ reaches a critical value. In patients and experimental models, seizures can also evolve into sustained ictal activity (SIA) and depolarization block (DB), activities which are also parts of the dynamic repertoire of the Epileptor. Increasing extracellular concentration of K+ in the model to values found during experimental status epilepticus and DB, we show that SIA and DB can also occur at the single cell level. Thus, seizures, SIA, and DB, which have been first identified as network events, can exist in a unified framework of a biophysical model at the single neuron level and exhibit similar dynamics as observed in the Epileptor.Author Summary: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by the occurrence of seizures. Seizures have been characterized in patients in experimental models at both macroscopic and microscopic scales using electrophysiological recordings. Experimental works allowed the establishment of a detailed taxonomy of seizures, which can be described by mathematical models. We can distinguish two main types of models. Phenomenological (generic) models have few parameters and variables and permit detailed dynamical studies often capturing a majority of activities observed in experimental conditions. But they also have abstract parameters, making biological interpretation difficult. Biophysical models, on the other hand, use a large number of variables and parameters due to the complexity of the biological systems they represent. Because of the multiplicity of solutions, it is difficult to extract general dynamical rules. In the present work, we integrate both approaches and reduce a detailed biophysical model to sufficiently low-dimensional equations, and thus maintaining the advantages of a generic model. We propose, at the single cell level, a unified framework of different pathological activities that are seizures, depolarization block, and sustained ictal activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 141-150
O. I. Kit ◽  
G. V. Zhukova ◽  
A. Yu. Maksimov ◽  
A. S. Goncharova ◽  
E. Yu. Zlatnik ◽  

The humanization of immunodeficient animals allows us to study the growth of xenografts of human malignant tumors and their response to therapeutic effects, taking into account processes in the immune system and tumor zone, which have a significant impact on oncogenesis and the effectiveness of antitumor therapy. Such experimental models are currently considered as the most advanced tool in the development of personalized antitumor treatment. The lines of immunodeficient animals most commonly used for the transplantation of mature and stem human immune cells have been characterized. The main sources of human immune cells when implementing the hu-pbl and hu-cd34+ models, as well as the blt model (as an option to the cd34+ model) are described. The basic procedures necessary for reproducing each model, their modification in adult and newborn animals are outlined as well as the parameters of immunosuppressive radiation exposure, preceding the transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. The main results of the humanization of immunodeficient animals and examples of the use of these models for the purposes of fundamental and clinical oncology are described. The main problems of this direction are discussed. The review is based on an analysis of the literature presented in the scopus, web of science, medline, risc and others databases over the past 7 years (over 80 % of literature sources, with more than over 50 % of studies published over the last 3 years).

2022 ◽  
pp. jnumed.121.263222
Daniele Bertoglio ◽  
Nicolas Halloin ◽  
Stef De Lombaerde ◽  
Aleksandar Jankovski ◽  
Jeroen Verhaeghe ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 552
Rafał Nowak ◽  
Tomasz Kania ◽  
Radosław Rutkowski ◽  
Ewa Ekiert

The study presents the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) diagnostic of the clay brick masonry arched staircase in a historic building. Based on the measurements of the existing arched stair flights, 1:1 scale experimental models with and without stair treads were made. Strength tests of the models were carried out for different concentrated force locations in relation to the supporting structure. Force, deflections and reaction in the upper support of the run were measured during the tests. The influence of the masonry steps on the curved vault on the load capacity and stiffness of the run structure was analyzed. The conducted experimental investigations showed that the key element responsible for the actual load-bearing capacity and stiffness of this type of stair flights were the treads above the masonry arch.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
José Rodrigues do Carmo Neto ◽  
Arthur Wilson Florêncio da Costa ◽  
Yarlla Loyane Lira Braga ◽  
Fernanda Hélia Lucio ◽  
Ana Luisa Monteiro dos Santos Martins ◽  

The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathological changes caused by infection with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) in the acute and chronic experimental phases. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with 1000 trypomastigote forms of the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. After 30 days (acute phase) and 90 days (early chronic phase) of infection, the animals were euthanized, and the colon was collected and divided into two parts: proximal and distal. The distal portion was used for histopathological analysis, whereas the proximal portion was used for quantification of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the weight of the animals and parasitemia were assessed. The infection induced gradual weight loss in the animals. In addition, the infection induced an increase in interferon gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the intestine in the acute phase, in which this increase continued until the early chronic phase. The same was observed in relation to the presence of intestinal inflammatory infiltrates. In relation to interleukin (IL)-10, there was an increase only in the early chronic phase. The Colombian strain infection was also able to induce neuronal loss in the myenteric plexus and deposition of the collagen fibers during the acute phase. The Colombian strain of T. cruzi is capable of causing histopathological changes in the intestine of infected mice, especially in inducing neuronal destructions. Thus, this strain can also be used to study the intestinal form of Chagas disease in experimental models.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 228
Izabella Lice ◽  
José Marcos Sanches ◽  
Rebeca D. Correia-Silva ◽  
Mab P. Corrêa ◽  
Marcelo Y. Icimoto ◽  

Formyl peptide receptors (Fprs) are a G-protein-coupled receptor family mainly expressed on leukocytes. The activation of Fpr1 and Fpr2 triggers a cascade of signaling events, leading to leukocyte migration, cytokine release, and increased phagocytosis. In this study, we evaluate the effects of the Fpr1 and Fpr2 agonists Ac9-12 and WKYMV, respectively, in carrageenan-induced acute peritonitis and LPS-stimulated macrophages. Peritonitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice through the intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL of 3% carrageenan solution or saline (control). Pre-treatments with Ac9-12 and WKYMV reduced leukocyte influx to the peritoneal cavity, particularly neutrophils and monocytes, and the release of IL-1β. The addition of the Fpr2 antagonist WRW4 reversed only the anti-inflammatory actions of WKYMV. In vitro, the administration of Boc2 and WRW4 reversed the effects of Ac9-12 and WKYMV, respectively, in the production of IL-6 by LPS-stimulated macrophages. These biological effects of peptides were differently regulated by ERK and p38 signaling pathways. Lipidomic analysis evidenced that Ac9-12 and WKYMV altered the intracellular lipid profile of LPS-stimulated macrophages, revealing an increased concentration of several glycerophospholipids, suggesting regulation of inflammatory pathways triggered by LPS. Overall, our data indicate the therapeutic potential of Ac9-12 and WKYMV via Fpr1 or Fpr2-activation in the inflammatory response and macrophage activation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e43211125191
Luana Nayara Gallego Adami ◽  
Valter Luiz Maciel Junior ◽  
João Diego Losano

Male infertility is one important factor among the multifactorial causes of couple infertility, being oxidative stress one of the main related sources. Sperm is a specialized cell extremely susceptible to stress. To understand and mitigate this event, many studies have used different antioxidants, orally or in vitro supplementation, trying to improve sperm quality and function. Considering the extensive available literature regarding approaches and attempts to solve male fertility issues, the aim of this review is evaluating the effects of antioxidant supplementation on sperm, in both humans and experimental models with animals. This review selected original data from PubMed. The keywords used were: antioxidant, sperm, male fertility, antioxidant supplementation, male infertility; and the term "rodents" was added to the descriptors “antioxidant” and “male fertility”. Only studies published in indexed journals, in English, between 2015 and 2019 were included. This review involves i) human sperm and ii) rodent sperm. For the human approach, the search retrieved 496 articles and 80 were included, among which 28 studies were of in vitro antioxidant supplementation, 19 involved oral antioxidant supplementation and the remaining 33 concerned quantification of oxidants and antioxidants already present in the seminal samples. For the rodent approach, 152 articles were retrieved and 52 were included: 3 of varicocele, 11 of diabetes, 10 of therapeutic drugs, 3 of physical exercise, 10 of environmental exposure and 3 of heat stress. The remaining studies involved oxidative stress status in experimental models. Antioxidants use for reproductive purposes is increasing in an attempt to achieve better gametes and embryos. Vitamins C, B and E, selenium and zinc are the most commonly used antioxidants, with remarkable evidences in improving pathophysiological seminal conditions.

Michele Goulart dos Santos ◽  
Lucia Emanueli Schimith ◽  
Corinne André-Miral ◽  
Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch ◽  
Bruno Dutra Arbo ◽  

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