ginkgo biloba
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2022 ◽  
Vol 177 ◽  
pp. 114455
Qihui Dong ◽  
Jun Cao ◽  
Luyao Chen ◽  
Jiarui Cao ◽  
Huimin Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 ◽  
pp. 100585
Qi Zhou ◽  
Luqman Jameel Rather ◽  
Shazia Shaheen Mir ◽  
Asghar Ali ◽  
Qazi Mohd Rizwanul Haque ◽  

Jerome Ndudi Asiwe ◽  
Tarela Melish Elias Daubry ◽  
Idara Asuquo Okon ◽  
Ajirioghene Emamuzou Akpotu ◽  
Ebunoluwa Oluwabusola Adagbada ◽  

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 433
Agata Walkowiak ◽  
Kacper Wnuk ◽  
Michał Cyrankiewicz ◽  
Bogumiła Kupcewicz

Ginkgo biloba is a popular medicinal plant widely used in numerous herbal products, including food supplements. Due to its popularity and growing economic value, G. biloba leaf extract has become the target of economically motivated adulterations. There are many reports about the poor quality of ginkgo products and their adulteration, mainly by adding flavonols, flavonol glycosides, or extracts from other plants. In this work, we developed an approach using two-trace two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2T2D COS) in UV-Vis range combined with multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) to detect potential adulteration of twenty G. biloba food supplements. UV-Vis spectral data are obtained for 80% methanol and aqueous extracts in the range of 245–410 nm. Three series of two-dimensional correlation spectra were interpreted by visual inspection and using MPCA. The proposed relatively quick and straightforward approach successfully differentiated supplements adulterated with rutin or those lacking ginkgo leaf extract. Supporting information about adulteration was obtained from the difference between the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of both extracts and from chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) fingerprints of methanolic samples.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 439
Lihu Zhang ◽  
Chunyi Zhu ◽  
Xiaoqing Liu ◽  
Erzheng Su ◽  
Fuliang Cao ◽  

The predicted anti-oxidation is related to apoptosis, proliferation, lipid metabolism, cell differentiation, and immune response. There are some differences in the antioxidant capacity of the four typical components of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) including ginkgo flavone (GF), ginkgolide (G), procyanidins (OPC), and organic acids (OA), and any two members of them can exhibit apparent synergistic effects. The order of DPPH scavenging ability was: OPC > GF > OA > G. The scavenging ability of procyanidins was close to that of VC; the scavenging capacity of ABTS was GF > OPC > OA > G. The GF:OPC (1:9) showed the best synergism in scavenging DPPH and ABTS radicals. The 193 kinds of small molecules reported in EGb were obtained by analyzing the properties of EGb. In order to construct a corresponding biological activity target set, molecular docking and the network pharmacology method were employed to build the molecular action mechanism network of a compound target, and the main biological functions and signaling pathways involved with their antioxidant activities were predicted. The results displayed that the top ten compounds which belonged to the two broad categories, ginkgo flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, could interact closely with several important target proteins (CASP3, SOD2, MAPK1, HSPA4, and NQO1). This would be expected to lay a theoretical foundation for the deep development of Ginkgo biloba extract.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Yunfeng Lai ◽  
Ruoning Wang ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
He Zhu ◽  
Shuyang Fei ◽  

Abstract Background Dizziness and vertigo are common clinical symptoms. Gastrodin injection has shown clinical effects on dizziness or vertigo. However, little is known about the effectiveness and costs of combining Gastrodin injection with conventional treatment on dizziness or vertigo in daily practice. This study aimed to analyze the clinical and economic effects of Gastrodin injection for patients with dizziness or vertigo in comparison to Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves injection in real-world practice. Methods Data was collected from the Hospital Information System of 131 hospitals across China from January to December 2018. Patients whose primary discharge diagnosis was dizziness or vertigo according to ICD-10 diagnostic coding were included and divided into two samples: sample of dizziness or vertigo; sample of dizziness or vertigo, with the complication of cerebral infarction. Comparative analysis of the medical cost per hospitalization, hospitalization duration, effective rates, and cure rates between the group of Gastrodin injection and the group of Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves injection was conducted. Propensity Score Matching was used to control potential confounding factors. Results In the sample of dizziness or vertigo, although there was no significant differences on hospitalization duration (P = 0.080), the group of Gastrodin injection was significantly better than the group of Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves injection (P < 0.001) in terms of treatment effect and the per capita hospitalization cost. In the sample of dizziness or vertigo, with the complication of cerebral infarction, there was no significant difference (P = 0.371) in terms of hospitalization duration, but the group of Gastrodin injection was significantly better than the group of Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves injection (P = 0.009) in terms of treatment effect, and significant difference regarding the per capita hospitalization cost (P < 0.001). Conclusions Gastrodin injection showed advantages for inpatients with dizziness or vertigo compared with Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves injection. Future studies using prospective pragmatic controlled trials can test and explore more about the effects of Gastrodin injections on dizziness or vertigo.

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