functional components
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 550
Hussah Abdullah Alshwyeh ◽  
Sahar Khamees Aldosary ◽  
Muna Abdulsalam Ilowefah ◽  
Raheem Shahzad ◽  
Adeeb Shehzad ◽  

Nigella species are widely used to cure various ailments. Their health benefits, particularly from the seed oils, could be attributed to the presence of a variety of bioactive components. Roasting is a critical process that has historically been used to facilitate oil extraction and enhance flavor; it may also alter the chemical composition and biological properties of the Nigella seed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the roasting process on the composition of the bioactive components and the biological activities of Nigella arvensis and Nigella sativa seed extracts. Our preliminary study showed that seeds roasted at 50 °C exhibited potent antimicrobial activities; therefore, this temperature was selected for roasting Nigella seeds. For extraction, raw and roasted seed samples were macerated in methanol. The antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca were determined by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The cell viability of extracts was tested in a colon carcinoma cell line, HCT-116, by using a microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT) assay. Amino acids were extracted and quantified using an automatic amino acid analyzer. Then, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was performed to identify the chemical constituents and fatty acids. As a result, the extracts of raw and roasted seeds in both Nigella species showed strong inhibition against Klebsiella oxytoca, and the raw seed extract of N.arvensis demonstrated moderate inhibition against S. pyogenes. The findings of the MTT assay indicated that all the extracts significantly decreased cancer cell viability. Moreover, N. sativa species possessed higher contents of the measured amino acids, except tyrosine, cystine, and methionine. The GC–MS analysis of extracts showed the presence of 22 and 13 compounds in raw and roasted N. arvensis, respectively, and 9 and 11 compounds in raw and roasted N. sativa, respectively. However, heat treatment decreased the detectable components to 13 compounds in roasted N. arvensis and increased them in roasted N. sativa. These findings indicate that N. arvensis and N. sativa could be potential sources of anticancer and antimicrobials, where the bioactive compounds play a pivotal role as functional components.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0257929
Maria Francesca Evaristi ◽  
Bruno Poirier ◽  
Xavier Chénedé ◽  
Anne-Marie Lefebvre ◽  
Alain Roccon ◽  

Aim Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major cause of death worldwide with no approved treatment. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction represent the structural and functional components of HFpEF, respectively. Endothelial dysfunction is prevalent in HFpEF and predicts cardiovascular events. We investigated if SAR247799, a G-protein-biased sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) agonist with endothelial-protective properties, could improve cardiac and renal functions in a rat model of metabolic syndrome LVH and diastolic function. Methods 31- and 65-week-old obese ZSF1 (Ob-ZSF1) rats, representing adult and aged animals with LVH and diastolic dysfunction, were randomized to a chow diet containing 0.025% (w/w) of SAR247799, or control (CTRL) chow for 4 weeks. Age-matched lean ZSF1 (Le-ZSF1) rats were fed control chow. Echocardiography, telemetry, biochemical and histological analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of SAR247799. Results Echocardiography revealed that Ob-ZSF1 rats, in contrast to Le-ZSF1 rats, developed progressive diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy with age. SAR247799 blunted the progression of diastolic dysfunction in adult and aged animals: in adult animals E/e’ was evaluated at 21.8 ± 1.4 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL, 19.5 ± 1.2 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, and 19.5 ± 2.3 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL (median ± IQR). In aged animals E/e’ was evaluated at 23.15 ± 4.45 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL, 19.5 ± 5 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, and 16.69 ± 1.7 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL, p<0.01 (median ± IQR). In aged animals, SAR247799 reduced cardiac hypertrophy (g/mm mean ± SEM of heart weight/tibia length 0.053 ± 0.001 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL vs 0.046 ± 0.002 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, Le-ZSF1-CTRL 0.035 ± 0.001) and myocardial perivascular collagen content (p<0.001), independently of any changes in microvascular density. In adult animals, SAR247799 improved endothelial function as assessed by the very low frequency bands of systolic blood pressure variability (mean ± SEM 67.8 ± 3.41 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL 55.8 ± 4.27 or Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799, p<0.05 and 57.3 ± 1.82 Le-ZSF1-CTRL), independently of any modification of arterial blood pressure. In aged animals, SAR247799 reduced urinary protein/creatinine ratio, an index of glomerular injury, (10.3 ± 0.621 vs 8.17 ± 0.231 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL vs Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799, respectively, p<0.05 and 0.294 ± 0.029 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL, mean ± SEM) and the fractional excretion of electrolytes. Circulating lymphocytes were not decreased by SAR247799, confirming lack of S1P1 desensitization. Conclusions These experimental findings suggest that S1P1 activation with SAR247799 may be considered as a new therapeutic approach for LVH and diastolic dysfunction, major components of HFpEF.

2022 ◽  

Abstract Hungarian fruit vinegars were characterised in terms of physicochemical attributes (total polyphenol content, antioxidant characteristics/FRAP, CUPRAC, ABTS/, ascorbic acid content, pH, total soluble solids), sensory profiles, and antimicrobial properties. Both compositional and sensory profiles showed distinct patterns depending on the type of vinegar (Tokaj wine, balsamic or apple) and the additional fruit used. Balsamic vinegars maturated on rosehip, sea buckthorn, and raspberry showed outstanding antioxidant performances. Rosehip, raspberry, and quince vinegars, as well as vinegars produced from Tokaji aszú and balsamic apple obtained high scores for fruity and sweet notes. Antimicrobial activities were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, including probiotic bacteria. Generally, only weak activities were obtained, which was attributed to the natural sugar content of the samples, depending on the type of the vinegar and the fruit. Similar results, but more pronounced bacterial growth inhibitions were obtained for probiotic strains, however, some probiotic strains were resistant to at least two of the vinegars. Based on these, balsamic apple, raspberry, rosehip, quince, and sea buckthorn may qualify as potential functional components of probiotic preparations containing some of the strains tested.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 439
Lihu Zhang ◽  
Chunyi Zhu ◽  
Xiaoqing Liu ◽  
Erzheng Su ◽  
Fuliang Cao ◽  

The predicted anti-oxidation is related to apoptosis, proliferation, lipid metabolism, cell differentiation, and immune response. There are some differences in the antioxidant capacity of the four typical components of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) including ginkgo flavone (GF), ginkgolide (G), procyanidins (OPC), and organic acids (OA), and any two members of them can exhibit apparent synergistic effects. The order of DPPH scavenging ability was: OPC > GF > OA > G. The scavenging ability of procyanidins was close to that of VC; the scavenging capacity of ABTS was GF > OPC > OA > G. The GF:OPC (1:9) showed the best synergism in scavenging DPPH and ABTS radicals. The 193 kinds of small molecules reported in EGb were obtained by analyzing the properties of EGb. In order to construct a corresponding biological activity target set, molecular docking and the network pharmacology method were employed to build the molecular action mechanism network of a compound target, and the main biological functions and signaling pathways involved with their antioxidant activities were predicted. The results displayed that the top ten compounds which belonged to the two broad categories, ginkgo flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, could interact closely with several important target proteins (CASP3, SOD2, MAPK1, HSPA4, and NQO1). This would be expected to lay a theoretical foundation for the deep development of Ginkgo biloba extract.

2022 ◽  
Brian D Reed ◽  
Michael J Meyer ◽  
Valentin Abramzon ◽  
Omer Ad ◽  
Pat Adcock ◽  

Proteins are the main structural and functional components of cells, and their dynamic regulation and post-translational modifications (PTMs) underlie cellular phenotypes. Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized our understanding of heredity and gene regulation, but the complex and dynamic states of cells are not fully captured by the genome and transcriptome. Sensitive measurements of the proteome are needed to fully understand biological processes and changes to the proteome that occur in disease states. Studies of the proteome would benefit greatly from methods to directly sequence and digitally quantify proteins and detect PTMs with single-molecule sensitivity and precision. However current methods for studying the proteome lag behind DNA sequencing in throughput, sensitivity, and accessibility due to the complexity and dynamic range of the proteome, the chemical properties of proteins, and the inability to amplify proteins. Here, we demonstrate single-molecule protein sequencing on a compact benchtop instrument using a dynamic sequencing by stepwise degradation approach in which single surface-immobilized peptide molecules are probed in real-time by a mixture of dye-labeled N-terminal amino acid recognizers and simultaneously cleaved by aminopeptidases. By measuring fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and binding kinetics of recognizers on an integrated semiconductor chip we are able to annotate amino acids and identify the peptide sequence. We describe the expansion of the number of recognizable amino acids and demonstrate the kinetic principles that allow individual recognizers to identify multiple amino acids in a highly information-rich manner that is sensitive to adjacent residues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our method is compatible with both synthetic and natural peptides, and capable of detecting single amino acid changes and PTMs. We anticipate that with further development our protein sequencing method will offer a sensitive, scalable, and accessible platform for studies of the proteome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 460
Dina Zidan ◽  
Azrina Azlan

Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) is the scientific term the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) uses to define a solid product, produced by sugarcane juice evaporation, which is unrefined or minimally refined. NCS is referred to in various names globally, the most significant ones are whole cane sugar, panela (Latin America), jaggery (India) and kokuto (Japan). NCS contains minerals, bioactive compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, which have therapeutic potentials from time immemorial. Even though the bioactive property is dependent on the composition, which relies mainly on the agronomic conditions and production process, NCS possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, substituting the consumption of refined sugar with NCS might be helpful in the control of chronic diseases generally connected to oxidative stress and inflammation. Experimental facts from in vitro and in vivo models have proven that NCS plays an essential role in weight management, maintaining insulin sensitivity and preventing neurodegenerative diseases. NCS has also shown hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. This review aims to synopsize the recent literature pertaining to the benefits of NCS in human health. The NCS can be considered a nutraceutical and functional food. However, detailed and regulated studies are important to enhance the beneficial effects in human and animal interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 215 (12) ◽  
pp. 87-97
N. Guschenskaya ◽  
Marina Sumarokova ◽  
Alina Kovshova

Abstract. The purpose of the research is to comprehensively assess the resource potential of agricultural organizations in the Kurgan region to form the trajectory of their development and determine the contribution to agricultural production in the region. Methods. The study was based on the use of statistical and econometric methods for collecting, processing, modeling data. It is based on the assessment of the use of the following functional components of the resource potential: land, material and technical, personnel, innovation and financial. At the same time, the dynamic assessment for each subspecies of the resource potential gives an idea of the trend in the volume and level of resource use, and the stochastic assessment – to identify the relationship between the indicators of resource investment and their return. Results. The presented assessment of the existing relationships between the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the resource potential and its subspecies indicate, on the one hand, an acute shortage of certain types of resources, and, on the other hand, an increasing intensity of their use without a proportional level of return. The study allows us to conclude that it is necessary to develop levers for managing the resource potential of agricultural organizations based on the symbiosis of the needs of agricultural producers and the territory in which they operate. Scientific novelty. The research methodology allows combining several methods of assessing (dynamic and stochastic) in achieving the final result, as well as assessing the elasticity between the general level of resource productivity of agricultural organizations and indicators of the efficiency of using the main types of resources. This approach makes it possible to form a sequence of actions to ensure an increase in the level of development and use of the resource potential of agricultural organizations.

Jyoti Jyoti ◽  
Veena Veena

Citrus is an important part of fruit family. It belonging to the family Rutaceae, which include fruits such as orange, mandarin, lime, lemon, sour orange and grapefruit, pomelo appear as a well known promising source of multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Processing of citrus by-products (peel, pulp, and seed) potentially represents a rich source of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber, by consumption of citrus fruit the large amount of peel waste produced. These citrus fruit residues, which are generally discarded as waste in the environment, they can act as potential nutraceutical resources. Such comprehensive Utilization of Citrus By-products provides comprehensive knowledge and information on the development and utilization of citrus by-products, including (types, preparation, and determination) of their main functional components. One of the most popular fruits in the world, from the point of processing is citrus fruits by which produces citrus peel, a primary by-product. Current statuses of citrus peel pollute the environment and waste resources so eco-friendly solutions are sought. This review systematically summarized the knowledge of utilization of citrus peel, which generally discarded as waste by consumer after consumption of fruit.

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