correlation spectroscopy
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2022 ◽  
Ilanila Ilangumaran Ponmalar ◽  
Jitendriya Swain ◽  
Jaydeep Kumar Basu

Prevalence of wide spread bacterial infections bring forth a critical need in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the antibiotics as well as the bacterial response to those antibiotics. Improper usage of antibiotics, which can be in sub-lethal concentrations is one among the multiple reasons for acquiring antibiotic resistance which makes it vital to understand the bacterial response towards sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics. In this work, we have used colistin, a well-known membrane active antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and explored the impact of its subminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the lipid membrane dynamics and morphological changes of E. coli. Upon investigation of live cell membrane properties such as lipid dynamics using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we observed that colistin disrupts the lipid membrane at sub-MIC by altering the lipid diffusivity. Interestingly, filamentationlike cell elongation was observed upon colistin treatment which led to further exploration of surface morphology with the help of atomic force spectroscopy. The changes in the surface roughness upon colistin treatment provides additional insight on the colistin-membrane interaction corroborating with the altered lipid diffusion. Although altered lipid dynamics could be attributed to an outcome of lipid rearrangement due to direct disruption by antibiotic molecules on the membrane or an indirect consequence of disruptions in lipid biosynthetic pathways, we were able to ascertain that altered bacterial membrane dynamics is due to direct disruptions. Our results provide a broad overview on the consequence of the cyclic polypeptide, colistin on membrane specific lipid dynamics and morphology of a live Gram-negative bacterial cell.

2022 ◽  
Spencer Smyth ◽  
Zhenfu Zhang ◽  
Alaji Bah ◽  
Thomas Tsangaris ◽  
Jennifer Dawson ◽  

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play critical roles in regulatory protein interactions, but detailed structural/dynamics characterization of their ensembles remain challenging, both in isolation and they form dynamic fuzzy complexes. Such is the case for mRNA cap-dependent translation initiation, which is regulated by the interaction of the predominantly folded eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) with the intrinsically disordered eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer showed that the conformational changes of 4E-BP2 induced by binding to eIF4E are non-uniform along the sequence; while a central region containing both motifs that bind to eIF4E expands and becomes stiffer, the C-terminal region is less affected. Fluorescence anisotropy decay revealed a nonuniform segmental flexibility around six different labelling sites along the chain. Dynamic quenching of these fluorescent probes by intrinsic aromatic residues measured via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy report on transient intra- and inter-molecular contacts on nanosecond-microsecond timescales. Upon hyperphosphorylation, which induces folding of ~40 residues in 4E-BP2, the quenching rates decreased at labelling sites closest to the phosphorylation sites and within the folded domain, and increased at the other sites. The chain dynamics around sites in the C-terminal region far away from the two binding motifs were significantly reduced upon binding to eIF4E, suggesting that this region is also involved in the highly dynamic 4E-BP2:eIF4E complex. Our time-resolved fluorescence data paint a sequence-level rigidity map of three states of 4E-BP2 differing in phosphorylation or binding status and distinguish regions that form contacts with eIF4E. This study adds complementary structural and dynamics information to recent studies of 4E-BP2, and it constitutes an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of this important IDP via integrative modelling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Bassam Oudh Aljohny ◽  
Yasir Anwar ◽  
Shahid Ali Khan

Abstract In the current study, five different plants, Syzygium Cumini, Fagonia cretica, Acacia modesta, Withania coagulans, and Olea europaea aqueous extracts were prepared and applied against the anticancer and antibacterial activities. It was observed that O. Europaea extract shows the highest anticancer activity with cell viability of 21.5%. All the five plants extract was also used against the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis where O. Europaea extract shows a promising inhibitory activity of 3.2 cm followed by W. coagulans. Furthermore, W. coagulans was subjected to the process of column chromatography as a result a withanolide was isolated. The fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) and high resolution fast atom bombardment (HRFAB-MS) [M + 1] indicated molecular weight at m/z 453 and molecular formula C28H37O5. The UV–Vis. spectrum shows absorbance at 210 nm suggesting the presence of conjugated system, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was recorded to explore the functional groups. Similarly, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques such as 1H, 13C NMR, correlation spectroscopy (COSY-45°), heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) and Nuclear Overhauser effect Spectroscopy (NOESY) techniques was carried out to determine the unknown natural product. The collective data of all these techniques established the structure of the unknown compound and recognized as a withanolide.

Yasuhiro Matsuda ◽  
Mikie Nakabayashi ◽  
Tatsuya Suzuki ◽  
Sinan Zhang ◽  
Masashi Ichinose ◽  

Manipulative therapy (MT) is applied to motor organs through a therapist’s hands. Although MT has been utilized in various medical treatments based on its potential role for increasing the blood flow to the local muscle, a quantitative validation of local muscle blood flow in MT remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate bedside evaluation techniques. Therefore, we investigated changes in the local blood flow to the muscle undergoing MT by employing diffuse correlation spectroscopy, a portable and emerging optical measurement technology that non-invasively measures blood flow in deep tissues. This study investigated the changes in blood flow, heart rate, blood pressure, and autonomic nervous activity in the trapezius muscle through MT application in 30 volunteers without neck and shoulder injury. Five minutes of MT significantly increased the median local blood flow relative to that of the pre-MT period (p < 0.05). The post-MT local blood flow increase was significantly higher in the MT condition than in the control condition, where participants remained still without receiving MT for the same time (p < 0.05). However, MT did not affect the heart rate, blood pressure, or cardiac autonomic nervous activity. The post-MT increase in muscle blood flow was significantly higher in the participants with muscle stiffness in the neck and shoulder regions than in those without (p < 0.05). These results suggest that MT could increase the local blood flow to the target skeletal muscle, with minimal effects on systemic circulatory function.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Giulia Ambrosi ◽  
Oksana Voloshanenko ◽  
Antonia F Eckert ◽  
Dominique Kranz ◽  
G Ulrich Nienhaus ◽  

Wnt signaling plays important roles in development, homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Mutations in β-catenin that activate Wnt signaling have been found in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, the dynamics of wild-type and mutant forms of β-catenin are not fully understood. Here, we genome-engineered fluorescently tagged alleles of endogenous β-catenin in a colorectal cancer cell line. Wild-type and oncogenic mutant alleles were tagged with different fluorescent proteins, enabling the analysis of both variants in the same cell. We analyzed the properties of both β-catenin alleles using immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy approaches, revealing distinctly different biophysical properties. In addition, activation of Wnt signaling by treatment with a GSK3β inhibitor or a truncating APC mutation modulated the wild-type allele to mimic the properties of the mutant β-catenin allele. The one-step tagging strategy demonstrates how genome engineering can be employed for the parallel functional analysis of different genetic variants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 778
Aurélie Crepin ◽  
Erica Belgio ◽  
Barbora Šedivá ◽  
Eliška Kuthanová Trsková ◽  
Edel Cunill-Semanat ◽  

Antenna proteins play a major role in the regulation of light-harvesting in photosynthesis. However, less is known about a possible link between their sizes (oligomerization state) and fluorescence intensity (number of photons emitted). Here, we used a microscopy-based method, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), to analyze different antenna proteins at the particle level. The direct comparison indicated that Chromera Light Harvesting (CLH) antenna particles (isolated from Chromera velia) behaved as the monomeric Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) (from higher plants), in terms of their radius (based on the diffusion time) and fluorescence yields. FCS data thus indicated a monomeric oligomerization state of algal CLH antenna (at our experimental conditions) that was later confirmed also by biochemical experiments. Additionally, our data provide a proof of concept that the FCS method is well suited to measure proteins sizes (oligomerization state) and fluorescence intensities (photon counts) of antenna proteins per single particle (monomers and oligomers). We proved that antenna monomers (CLH and LHCIIm) are more “quenched” than the corresponding trimers. The FCS measurement thus represents a useful experimental approach that allows studying the role of antenna oligomerization in the mechanism of photoprotection.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 433
Agata Walkowiak ◽  
Kacper Wnuk ◽  
Michał Cyrankiewicz ◽  
Bogumiła Kupcewicz

Ginkgo biloba is a popular medicinal plant widely used in numerous herbal products, including food supplements. Due to its popularity and growing economic value, G. biloba leaf extract has become the target of economically motivated adulterations. There are many reports about the poor quality of ginkgo products and their adulteration, mainly by adding flavonols, flavonol glycosides, or extracts from other plants. In this work, we developed an approach using two-trace two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2T2D COS) in UV-Vis range combined with multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) to detect potential adulteration of twenty G. biloba food supplements. UV-Vis spectral data are obtained for 80% methanol and aqueous extracts in the range of 245–410 nm. Three series of two-dimensional correlation spectra were interpreted by visual inspection and using MPCA. The proposed relatively quick and straightforward approach successfully differentiated supplements adulterated with rutin or those lacking ginkgo leaf extract. Supporting information about adulteration was obtained from the difference between the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of both extracts and from chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) fingerprints of methanolic samples.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ajay Rajaram ◽  
Daniel Milej ◽  
Marianne Suwalski ◽  
Lilian Kebaya ◽  
Matthew Kewin ◽  

AbstractA major concern with preterm birth is the risk of neurodevelopmental disability. Poor cerebral circulation leading to periods of hypoxia is believed to play a significant role in the etiology of preterm brain injury, with the first three days of life considered the period when the brain is most vulnerable. This study focused on monitoring cerebral perfusion and metabolism during the first 72 h after birth in preterm infants weighing less than 1500 g. Brain monitoring was performed by combining hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy to assess oxygen saturation and the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO), with diffuse correlation spectroscopy to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF). In seven of eight patients, oxCCO remained independent of CBF, indicating adequate oxygen delivery despite any fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics. In the remaining infant, a significant correlation between CBF and oxCCO was found during the monitoring periods on days 1 and 3. This infant also had the lowest baseline CBF, suggesting the impact of CBF instabilities on metabolism depends on the level of blood supply to the brain. In summary, this study demonstrated for the first time how continuous perfusion and metabolic monitoring can be achieved, opening the possibility to investigate if CBF/oxCCO monitoring could help identify preterm infants at risk of brain injury.

2022 ◽  
Nirmalya Bag ◽  
Erwin London ◽  
David A Holowka ◽  
Barbara Baird

Plasma membrane hosts numerous receptors, sensors, and ion channels involved in cellular signaling. Phase separation of the plasma membrane is emerging as a key biophysical regulator of signaling reactions in multiple physiological and pathological contexts. There is much evidence that plasma membrane composition supports the co-existence liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases or domains at physiological conditions. However, this phase/domain separation is nanoscopic and transient in live cells. It is recently proposed that transbilayer coupling between the inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane is driven by their asymmetric lipid distribution and by dynamic cytoskeleton-lipid composites that contribute to the formation and transience of Lo/Ld phase separation in live cells. In this Perspective, we highlight new approaches to investigate how transbilayer coupling may influence phase separation. For quantitative evaluation of the impact of these interactions, we introduce an experimental strategy centered around Imaging Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (ImFCS), which measures membrane diffusion with very high precision. To demonstrate this strategy we choose two well-established model systems for transbilayer interactions: crosslinking by multivalent antigen of immunoglobulin E bound to receptor FcεRI, and crosslinking by cholera toxin B of GM1 gangliosides. We discuss emerging methods to systematically perturb membrane lipid composition, particularly exchange of outer leaflet lipids with exogenous lipids using methyl alpha cyclodextrin. These selective perturbations may be quantitatively evaluated with ImFCS and other high-resolution biophysical tools to discover novel principles of lipid-mediated phase separation in live cells in the context of their pathophysiological relevance.

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