network pharmacology
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Xia Du ◽  
Zhibiao Di ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Wenbing Zhi ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
...  

Toutongning capsule (TTNC) is an effective and safe traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of migraine. In this present study, a multiscale strategy was used to systematically investigate the mechanism of TTNC in treating migraine, which contained UPLC-UESI-Q Exactive Focus network pharmacology and experimental verification. First, 88 compounds were identified by the UPLC-UESI-Q Exactive Focus method for TTNC. Then, the target fishing for these compounds was performed by means of an efficient drug similarity search tool. Third, a series of network pharmacology experiments were performed to predict the key compounds, targets, and pathways. They were protein-protein interaction (PPI), KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and herbs-compounds-targets-pathways (H-C-T-P) network construction. As a result, 18 potential key compounds, 20 potential key targets, and 6 potential signaling pathways were obtained for TTNC in treatment with migraine. Finally, molecular docking and experimental were carried out to verify the key targets. In short, the results showed that TTNC is able to treat migraine through multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways. This work may provide a theoretical basis for further research on the molecular mechanism of TTNC in the treatment of migraine.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wei Shi ◽  
Lu Qi ◽  
Xiong-Bin You ◽  
Yu-Chi Chen ◽  
Yu-Lian Xu ◽  
...  

Background: Shenling Baizhu Powder (SBP), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulation, has been widely used in the adjuvant treatment of cancers, including breast cancer. This study aims to identify potential new targets for breast cancer treatment based on the network pharmacology of SBP. Methods: By analyzing the relationship between herbs and target proteins, potential targets of multiple herbs in SBP were identified by network pharmacology analysis. Besides, by comparing the data of breast cancer tissue with normal tissue, upregulated genes in two breast cancer expression profiles were found. Thereafter, the expression level and prognosis of activator of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) ATPase activity 1 (AHSA1) were further analyzed in breast cancer by bioinformatics analysis, and the network module of AHSA1 binding protein was constructed. Furthermore, the effect of knocking down AHSA1 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells was verified by MTT, clone formation assay, and transwell assay. Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), AHSA1, and serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) were associated with multiple herbs in SBP. AHSA1 was remarkably upregulated in breast cancer tissues and positively correlated with poor overall survival and disease metastasis-free survival. Furthermore, knockdown of AHSA1 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but had no obvious effect on proliferation. In addition, among the proteins that bind to AHSAl, the network composed of proteasome, chaperonin, and heat shock proteins is closely connected, and these proteins are associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. Conclusion: AHSA1 is positively correlated with breast cancer progression and might act as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaofei Shang ◽  
Xinghui Yuan ◽  
Lixia Dai ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Jian He ◽  
...  

Ruangan granules (RGGs) have been used to treat liver fibrosis with good clinical efficacy for many years. However, the potential mechanism of action of RGGs against liver fibrosis is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the quality and safety of this preparation and aimed to explore the anti-liver fibrosis activity and potential mode of action of RGGs using network pharmacology and metabolomics. The results showed that RGGs contained abundant ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B and paeoniflorin, and at the given contents and doses, RGGs were safe and presented anti-liver fibrosis activity. They presented anti-liver fibrosis activity by improving liver function (ALT and AST, p < 0.01) and pathology and decreasing fibrosis markers in the serum of rats caused by CCl4, including HA, LN, PC III, HYP, CoII-V, and α-SMA, and the oxidant stress and inflammatory response were also alleviated in a dose-dependent manner, especially for high-dose RGGs (p < 0.01). Further studies showed that RGGs inhibited the activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in rats induced by CCl4, regulated pyrimidine metabolism, improved oxidative stress and the inflammatory response by regulating mitochondrial morphology, and alleviated liver fibrosis. Luteolin, quercetin, morin and kaempferol were active compounds and presented the cytotoxicity toward to LX-02 cells. This study provides an overall view of the mechanism underlying the action of RGGs protecting against liver fibrosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Riyu Chen ◽  
Zeyi Guan ◽  
Xianxing Zhong ◽  
Wenzheng Zhang ◽  
Ya Zhang

Objective. To explore the active compounds and targets of cinobufotalin (huachansu) compared with the osteosarcoma genes to obtain the potential therapeutic targets and pharmacological mechanisms of action of cinobufotalin on osteosarcoma through network pharmacology. Methods. The composition of cinobufotalin was searched by literature retrieval, and the target was selected from the CTD and TCMSP databases. The osteosarcoma genes, found from the GeneCards, OMIM, and other databases, were compared with the cinobufotalin targets to obtain potential therapeutic targets. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of potential therapeutic targets, constructed through the STRING database, was inputted into Cytoscape software to calculate the hub genes, using the NetworkAnalyzer. The hub genes were inputted into the Kaplan-Meier Plotter online database for exploring the survival curve. Functional enrichment analysis was identified using the DAVID database. Results. 28 main active compounds of cinobufotalin were explored, including bufalin, adenosine, oleic acid, and cinobufagin. 128 potential therapeutic targets on osteosarcoma are confirmed among 184 therapeutic targets form cinobufotalin. The hub genes included TP53, ACTB, AKT1, MYC, CASP3, JUN, TNF, VEGFA, HSP90AA1, and STAT3. Among the hub genes, TP53, ACTB, MYC, TNF, VEGFA, and STAT3 affect the patient survival prognosis of sarcoma. Through function enrichment analysis, it is found that the main mechanisms of cinobufotalin on osteosarcoma include promoting sarcoma apoptosis, regulating the cell cycle, and inhibiting proliferation and differentiation. Conclusion. The possible mechanisms of cinobufotalin against osteosarcoma are preliminarily predicted through network pharmacology, and further experiments are needed to prove these predictions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Chenxi Li ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  
Xuyao Lin ◽  
Qingrui Li ◽  
Shaoming Liu ◽  
...  

Background. Using network pharmacology and molecular docking, this study aimed to explore the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and molecular mechanism of Qinshi Simiao San (QSSMS) in the treatment of chronic prostatitis (CP) and verify our findings in the rat model. Methods. The APIs of QSSMS and the common targets of QSSMS and CP were screened from the TCMSP database. The STRING database and Cytoscape software were used to construct the network graph. The enriched GO and KEGG pathways were displayed by David software and R software. Molecular docking was performed to visualize key components and target genes. In addition, the rats model of CP was established to verify the molecular mechanism of QSSMS. Results. Network pharmacology showed that the APIs of QSSMS mainly included quercetin, kaempferol, formononetin, isorhamnetin, and calycosin. QSSMS alleviated CP mainly through the negative regulation of the apoptotic process, oxidation-reduction process, inflammatory response, and immune response. Molecular docking showed that the APIs could bind to the corresponding targets. QSSMS repaired the pathological damage of prostate tissue, upregulated the expression of oxidative stress scavenging enzymes CAT and SOD, and downregulated the peroxidative product MDA, inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, PGE2, and NGF, and immune factors IgG and SIgA. Conclusion. The APIs in QSSMS may inhibit inflammation in the rat CP model by regulating immune and oxidative stress.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhenglin Chang ◽  
Jinhu Zhang ◽  
Min Lei ◽  
Zheng Jiang ◽  
Xiangkun Wu ◽  
...  

Coptis chinensis Franch (CCF) is extensively used in the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases. Accumulating studies have previously demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of CCF, yet data on its exact targets against urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study decodes the potential targets of action of CCF against UTIs by network pharmacology combined with experiment evaluations. Based on the pharmacology network analysis, the current study yielded six core ingredients: quercetin, palmatine (R)-canadine, berlambine, berberine, and berberrubine. The protein–protein interaction network (PPI) was generated by the string database, and then, four targets (IL6, FOS, MYC, and EGFR) were perceived as the major CCF targets using the CytoNCA plug-in. The results of molecular docking showed that the six core constituents of CCF had strong binding affinities toward the four key targets of UTIs after docking into the crystal structure. The enrichment analysis indicated that the possible regulatory mechanisms of CCF against UTIs were based on the modules of inflammation, immune responses, and apoptosis among others. Experimentally, the Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain CFT073 was applied to establish in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo results revealed that the key targets, IL6 and FOS, are significantly upregulated in rat bladder tissues of UTIs, whereas the expression of MYC and EGFR remained steady. Last, in vitro results further confirmed the therapeutic potential of CCF by reducing the expression of IL6 and FOS. In conclusion, IL6 and FOS were generally upregulated in the progression of E. coli–induced UTIs, whereas the CCF intervention exerted a preventive role in host cells stimulated by E. coli, partially due to inhibiting the expression of IL6 and FOS.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Jiamin Xu ◽  
Fuqin Kang ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Shujun Liu ◽  
Jianhui Xie ◽  
...  

Background. Clinical research found that TCM is therapeutic in treating gastric cancer. Clearing heat is the most common method, while some antirheumatic medicines are widely used in treatment as well. To explore the pharmacological mechanism, we researched the comparison between heat-clearing medicine and antirheumatic medicine in treating gastric cancer. Methods. First, related ingredients and targets were searched, respectively, and are shown in an active ingredient-target network. Combining the relevant targets of gastric cancer, we constructed a PPI network and MCODE network. Then, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were conducted. Molecular docking experiments were performed to verify the affinity of targets and ligands. Finally, we analyzed the tumor immune infiltration on gene expression, somatic CNA, and clinical outcome. Results. A total of 31 ingredients and 90 targets of heat-clearing medicine, 31 ingredients and 186 targets of antirheumatic medicine, and 12,155 targets of gastric cancer were collected. Antirheumatic medicine ranked the top in all the enrichment analyses. In the KEGG pathway, both types of medicines were related to pathways in cancer. In the KEGG map, AR, MMP2, ERBB2, and TP53 were the most crucial targets. Key targets and ligands were docked with low binding energy. Analysis of tumor immune infiltration showed that the expressions of AR and ERBB2 were correlated with the abundance of immune infiltration and made a difference in clinical outcomes. Conclusions. Quercetin is an important ingredient in both heat-clearing medicine and antirheumatic medicine. AR signaling pathway exists in both types of medicines. The mechanism of the antitumor effect in antirheumatic medicine was similar to trastuzumab, a targeted drug aimed at ERBB2. Both types of medicines were significant in tumor immune infiltration. The immunology of gastric tumor deserves further research.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Su-Ya Ma ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Jing Shi

Abstract Along with cognitive deficit, behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) is another characteration of Alzheimer's disease that hamper clinical management and exacerbate burden for caregivers. However, therapeutic management of BPSD remains challenging. HuanglianJiedu decoction (HLJDD), a traditional Chinese prescription which contains Coptidis rhizome(Huang lian), Scutellariae radix (Huang-qin), Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex (Huang-bai) and Gardeniae fructus (Zhi-zi), is applied to treat BPSD. So elucidating the herbs’ disease-matched pharmacological mechanisms underlying HLJDD, further put forward each herbs’ disease-matched combination are critical to the application of HLJDD. In this study, network pharmacology was used to determine the targets and biological processes regulated by HLJDD in the treatment of BPSD. Moreover, molecular docking was utilized to evaluate the binding activity between the herbs' main active ingredients and neurotransmitter receptors. The results showed that the KEGG signaling pathway of HLJDD in treating BPSD mainly lies in TNF signaling pathway and AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications. Scutellariae radix and Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex exhibited better anti-BPSD effects when compared to Coptidis rhizoma and Gardeniae fructus. Scutellariae radix exhibited superior anti-neuroinflammation functions, with better blood vessel regulation effects. Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex showed a higher binding affinity to the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A). Coptidis rhizoma and Gardeniae fructus were better in neuronal signaling. In conclusion, for treating BPSD, Scutellariae radix and Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex are the principal herbs while Coptidis rhizoma and Gardeniae fructus are the ancillary herbs. Beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, chelerythrine, campesterol and berberine are the potential effective ingredients in treating BPSD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nanxing Yi ◽  
Yilin Mi ◽  
Xiaotong Xu ◽  
Naping Li ◽  
Fan Zeng ◽  
...  

As life expectancy increases, Osteoarthritis (OA) is becoming a more frequently seen chronic joint disease. The main characteristics of OA are loss of articular cartilage, subchondral bone sclerosis, and synovial inflammation. Baicalein (Bai), a traditional Chinese medicine extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been demonstrated to exert notable anti-inflammatory effects in previous studies, suggesting its potential effect in the treatment of OA. In this study, we first predicted the action targets of Bai, mapped target genes related to OA, identified potential anti-OA targets for Bai, performed gene ontology (GO) enrichment, and KEGG signaling pathway analyses of the action targets, and analyzed the molecular docking of key Bai targets. Additionally, the effect and potential mechanism of Bai against OA were verified in mouse knee OA models induced by destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. GO and KEGG analyses showed that 19 anti-OA targets were mainly involved in the response to oxidative stress, the response to hypoxia and apoptosis, and the PI3K-Akt and p53 signaling pathways. Molecular docking results indicated that BAX, BCL 2, and Caspase 3 enriched in the apoptotic signaling pathway have high binding affinity with Bai. Validation experiments showed that Bai can significantly attenuate the loss of articular cartilage (OARSI score), suppress synovial inflammation (synovitis score), and ameliorate subchondral bone resorption measured by micro-CT. In addition, Bai notably inhibited the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in articular cartilage (BAX, BCL 2, and Caspase 3). By combining network pharmacology with experimental validation, our study identifies and verifies the importance of the apoptotic signaling pathway in the treatment of OA by Bai. Bai may have promising application and potential therapeutic value in OA treatment.


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