fetal head
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anastasia Martin ◽  
Diane Nzelu ◽  
Annette Briley ◽  
Graham Tydeman ◽  
Andrew Shennan

Abstract Background The rate of second stage caesarean section (CS) is rising with associated increases in maternal and neonatal morbidity, which may be related to impaction of the fetal head in the maternal pelvis. In the last 10 years, two devices have been developed to aid disimpaction and reduce these risks: the Fetal Pillow (FP) and the Tydeman Tube (TT). The aim of this study was to determine the distance of upward fetal head elevation achieved on a simulator for second stage CS using these two devices, compared to the established technique of per vaginum digital disimpaction by an assistant. Methods We measured elevation of the fetal head achieved with the two devices (TT and FP), compared to digital elevation, on a second stage Caesearean simulator (Desperate Debra ™ set at three levels of severity. Elevation was measured by both a single operator experienced with use of the TT and FP and also multiple assistants with no previous experience of using either device. All measurements were blinded Results The trained user achieved greater elevation of the fetal head at both moderate and high levels of severity with the TT (moderate: 30mm vs 12.5mm p<0.001; most severe: 25mm vs 10mm p<0.001) compared to digital elevation. The FP provided comparable elevation to digital at both settings (moderate: 10 vs 12.5mm p=0.149; severe 10 vs 10mm p=0.44). With untrained users, elevation was also significantly greater with the TT compared to digital elevation (20mm vs 10mm p<0.01). However digital disimpaction was significantly greater than the FP (10mm vs 0mm p<0.0001). Conclusion On a simulator, with trained operators, the TT provided greater fetal head elevation than digital elevation and the FP. The FP achieved similar elevation to the digital technique, especially when the user was trained in the procedure.

2022 ◽  
pp. 016173462110698
Vahid Ashkani Chenarlogh ◽  
Mostafa Ghelich Oghli ◽  
Ali Shabanzadeh ◽  
Nasim Sirjani ◽  
Ardavan Akhavan ◽  

U-Net based algorithms, due to their complex computations, include limitations when they are used in clinical devices. In this paper, we addressed this problem through a novel U-Net based architecture that called fast and accurate U-Net for medical image segmentation task. The proposed fast and accurate U-Net model contains four tuned 2D-convolutional, 2D-transposed convolutional, and batch normalization layers as its main layers. There are four blocks in the encoder-decoder path. The results of our proposed architecture were evaluated using a prepared dataset for head circumference and abdominal circumference segmentation tasks, and a public dataset (HC18-Grand challenge dataset) for fetal head circumference measurement. The proposed fast network significantly improved the processing time in comparison with U-Net, dilated U-Net, R2U-Net, attention U-Net, and MFP U-Net. It took 0.47 seconds for segmenting a fetal abdominal image. In addition, over the prepared dataset using the proposed accurate model, Dice and Jaccard coefficients were 97.62% and 95.43% for fetal head segmentation, 95.07%, and 91.99% for fetal abdominal segmentation. Moreover, we have obtained the Dice and Jaccard coefficients of 97.45% and 95.00% using the public HC18-Grand challenge dataset. Based on the obtained results, we have concluded that a fine-tuned and a simple well-structured model used in clinical devices can outperform complex models.

Helena R. Torres ◽  
Pedro Morais ◽  
Bruno Oliveira ◽  
Cahit Birdir ◽  
Mario Rüdiger ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S715-S716
Jared T. Roeckner ◽  
Jeniffer Rizzo ◽  
Erica Peterson ◽  
Jose Duncan

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 200-204
Diaa Abdelhalim ◽  
Hussein Abolmakarem ◽  
Mohamed Hassan

Background: Failure of descent due to fetal malposition is one of the most common indications for performing surgical deliveries. It has recently been suggested that trans-perineal intra-partum ultrasonography may be useful in assessing fetal head engagement, position and station as well as it’s reliable, cheap, painless and effective tool. Measuring the ‘angle of progression’ could assist in the obstetrician’s decision regarding mode of delivery. Objectives: The primary outcome is to use the AOP to develop a predictive model for the probability of successful vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes including assessment of possibly successful VBAC in previous one CS women. Methods: We recruited 500 women in labor. For each woman, a (TPU) was performed to measure the AOP in late first and second stages of labor. We compared AOP between women who delivered fetuses through vaginal route to those who delivered by CS. Results: Through 467 women included in the study, AOP was significantly Higher in spontaneous vaginal delivery group (with cut off 123°±8.5°) as compared with women delivered by vacuum or by CS (113°±10.5°) (P=0.003). The VBAC as another secodary outcome seems to be insignificant. Conclusions: TPU is safe, non-invasive and easily preformed technique which is useful to predict labor outcomes.

Devanshi Shah ◽  
Arti Patel ◽  
Maitry Mandaliya

Background: Referral is a coordinated movement of healthcare seekers through the health system to reach a high level of care in a small and often fatal window of time. Even physiological processes like pregnancy and childbirth are not free of complications. The purpose of this study is to understand maternal and foetal outcome in caesarean sections in referred cases.Methods: A prospective study was carried out in the OBGY department of SMT.SCL HOSPITAL, NHL Municipal medical college from April 2020 to April 2021. All referred antenatal and intranatal patients to our tertiary care centre with >20 weeks of gestation who underwent caesarean section with referral note.Results: A total 64% patients were referred from community health center. 63.5% patients were referred due to lack of high-risk management services. 211 patients underwent caesarean section while 69 patients had normal vaginal delivery. Difficulty in delivery of the baby was encountered in 53% of cases due to deep engagement of the fetal head. Major cause of admission in NICU was sepsis (38.6%) followed by prematurity (23.8%).Conclusions: Cesarean section is one of the quickest and most efficient method in the delivery of the baby and thus should in considered in patients in critical situations .The millennium development goals defined by united nation includes one goal (MDG 5) towards improving maternal health which still remains a challenge. Thus, improving knowledge of women regarding good antenatal care and strengthening referral services will play a big role in this.

Nishita Shettian ◽  
Nikita Pitty

Background: Several models have been proposed to predict the need for an LSCS. With reference to this, the impact of the size of the fetal head traversing the birth canal is an important determinant of delivery outcomes. We examined the association between the head circumference and mode of delivery and perinatal outcomes, when compared to birth weight predicted by scan.Methods: This was a retrospective study, on 800 electronic delivery records between December 2019 and May 2021. Sociodemographic data, obstetrical parameter, term scan findings of head circumference and estimated fetal weight, and labour and perinatal outcomes were collected and analysed.Results: HC >95th centile was found to be comparatively more predictive and statistically significant compared to EFW >95th centile in the prediction of LSCS, with the most common indication being cephalopelvic disproportion. Prolonged second stage of labour was statistically significant in both cohort A and B, undergoing vaginal delivery. It was also noted that a significant number of newborns in cohort A required NICU admissions, while NICU admissions after emergency LSCS was significantly higher in the cohort B (p=0.0032) though the overall 5 and 10 minute APGAR scores and duration of stay were comparable in the groups classified on basis of EFW and HC.Conclusions: The above statistics observed on an Indian population may aid obstetricians in the planning of the mode of delivery, improve pre-labor counselling and efficient management of mothers of large babies. 

Gad Liberty ◽  
Ofer Gemer ◽  
Irena Siyanov ◽  
Eyal Y. Anteby ◽  
Alona Apter ◽  

Introduction: Cephalo-pelvic-disproportion (CPD) is one of the most common obstetric complications. Since CPD is the disproportion between the fetal head and maternal bony pelvis, evaluation of the head-circumference (HC) relative to maternal bony pelvis may be a useful adjunct to pre-labor CPD evaluation. The aim of the present study was a proof-of-concept evaluation of the ratio between HC to pelvic circumference (PC) as a predictor of CPD. Methods: Of 11,822 deliveries, 104 cases that underwent an abdomino-pelvic CT for any medical indication and who underwent normal vaginal deliveries (NVD) (n=84) or cesarean deliveries (CD) due to CPD (n=20) were included retrospectively. Maternal pelvis dimensions were reconstructed and neonatal HC, as a proxy for fetal HC, were measured. The correlation between cases of CPD and Cephalo-Pelvic Circumference Index (CPCI), which represents the ratio between the HC and PC in percent (HC/PC *100) was evaluated. Results: The mid-pelvis cephalo-pelvic circumference index (MP-CPCI) was larger in CD groups as compared to the NVD group: 103±11 vs. 97±8% respectively (p=0.0003). In logistic regression analysis, the MP-CPCI was found to be independently associated with CD due to CPD: each 1% increase in MP-CPCI increased the likelihood of CD for CPD by 11% (aOR 1.11, CI 95% 1.03-1.19, p=0.004). The adjusted odds ratio for CD due to CPD increased incrementally as the MP-CPCI increased, from 3.56 (95%CI, 1.01-12.6) at MP-CPCI of 100, to 5.6 (95%CI, 1.63-19.45) at 105, 21.44 (95%CI, 3.05-150.84) at 110, and 28.88 (95%CI, 2.3-362.27) at MP-CPCI of 115 Conclusions: The MP-CPCI, representing the relative dimensions of the fetal HC and maternal PC, is a simple tool that can potentially distinguish between parturients at lower and higher risk of CPD. Prospective randomized studies are required to evaluate the feasibility of prenatal pelvimetry and MP-CPCI to predict the risk of CPD during labor.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (11) ◽  
pp. 3043-3044
Nadia Zahid ◽  
Muntiha Sarosh ◽  
Rakhshsanda Toheed ◽  
Mohammad Saa ◽  
Kokab Zia

Complete Shoulder dystocia in the presence of scarred uterus is an acute obstetrical emergency and if not properly handled can lead to serious fetal and maternal complications. A G5P4AO previous II cesarean sections, presented in emergency after delivery of fetal head and impacted shoulders, at a small private clinic in a village, four hours back. On laparotomy, there was uterine rupture from the previous uterine scar along with posterior bladder wall rupture . The shoulder dystocia was relieved by decapitation and breech extraction abdominally. Subtotal hysterectomy and repair of the bladder wall was done. This case highlight the dilemma of lack of regular antenatal care and maternal education, malpractices by untrained health professionals and time lapse in referral system that is still a very serious and major issue in developing countries like Pakistan . Keywords: Shoulder dystocia, obstructed labor, and uterine rupture

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