maternal education
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2022 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
pp. 101685
Margaret Friend ◽  
Oliver Lopez ◽  
Stephanie De Anda ◽  
Roberto A. Abreu-Mendoza ◽  
Natalia Arias-Trejo

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Rebecca Milton ◽  
Fatima Zara Modibbo ◽  
William John Watkins ◽  
David Gillespie ◽  
Fatima Ibrahim Alkali ◽  

Background:Stillbirths are a poignant representation of global inequality. Nigeria is documented to have the second highest rate; yet, the reporting system is inadequate in most Nigerian healthcare facilities. The aim was to identify the determinants of stillbirth among deliveries in the Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, Nigeria.Methods:Two study designs were used: a case-control study (S1) and a prospective cohort study (S2). Both studies were carried out at the MMSH. For S1, stillbirths were retrospectively matched to a livebirth by time (target of 24 hours' time variation) to establish a case-control study with a 1:1 ratio. Eligibility into S2 included all mothers who were presented at the MMSH in labour regardless of birth outcome. Both were based on recruitment durations, not sample sizes (3 months and 2 months, respectively, 2017–2018). The demographic and clinical data were collected through paper-based questionnaires. Univariable logistic regression was used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore relationships between area type and other specific factors.Findings:Stillbirth incidence in S2 was 180/1,000 births. Stillbirth was associated with the following factors; no maternal education, previous stillbirth(s), prematurity, living in both semi-rural and rural settings, and having extended time periods between rupture of membranes and delivery. Findings of the multivariable analysis (S1 and S2) indicated that the odds of stillbirth, for those living in a rural area, were further exacerbated in those mothers who had no education, lived in a shack, or had any maternal disease.Interpretation:This research identifies the gravity of this situation in this area and highlights the need for action. Further understanding of some of the findings and exploration into associations are required to inform intervention development.Funding:This collaboration was partially supported by funding from Health and Care Research Wales.

Doan Thi Thuy Duong ◽  
Colin Binns ◽  
Andy Lee ◽  
Yun Zhao ◽  
Ngoc Minh Pham ◽  

Background: Breastfeeding brings benefits to both mothers and children in the short term and long term. Unnecessary cesarean sections can bring risks to both parties. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding intention and cesarean delivery. Methods: We analyzed data collected from 554 single mothers who delivered in Dong Anh General District Hospital or Hanoi Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Vietnam, in 2020–2021. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding intention and cesarean delivery for nonmedical reasons was adjusted for maternal education, maternal age, parity, history of fetal loss, having at least eight antenatal contacts, hospital of delivery, child sex, and birth weight. Results: Antenatally, 34.8% (184/529) of mothers intended to breastfeed exclusively until 6 months and 30.8% (84/274) underwent cesarean section for a nonmedical reason. After adjusting for other factors, mothers who intended to breastfeed exclusively until 6 months were less likely to undergo cesarean delivery for nonmedical reasons (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.96, p = 0.034). Conclusions: This study adds to the growing evidence related to unnecessary cesarean sections and routine over-medicalization of normal birth in the urban areas of Vietnam. The association between breastfeeding intentions and a lower rate of cesarean section suggests that education on breastfeeding could be a useful intervention for reducing the rate of cesarean sections and improving maternal and child health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Joshua Glauser ◽  
Carol L. Wilkinson ◽  
Laurel J. Gabard-Durnam ◽  
Boin Choi ◽  
Helen Tager-Flusberg ◽  

Abstract Background Differences in face processing in individuals with ASD is hypothesized to impact the development of social communication skills. This study aimed to characterize the neural correlates of face processing in 12-month-old infants at familial risk of developing ASD by (1) comparing face-sensitive event-related potentials (ERP) (Nc, N290, P400) between high-familial-risk infants who develop ASD (HR-ASD), high-familial-risk infants without ASD (HR-NoASD), and low-familial-risk infants (LR), and (2) evaluating how face-sensitive ERP components are associated with development of social communication skills. Methods 12-month-old infants participated in a study in which they were presented with alternating images of their mother’s face and the face of a stranger (LR = 45, HR-NoASD = 41, HR-ASD = 24) as EEG data were collected. Parent-reported and laboratory-observed social communication measures were obtained at 12 and 18 months. Group differences in ERP responses were evaluated using ANOVA, and multiple linear regressions were conducted with maternal education and outcome groups as covariates to assess relationships between ERP and behavioral measures. Results For each of the ERP components (Nc [negative-central], N290, and P400), the amplitude difference between mother and stranger (Mother-Stranger) trials was not statistically different between the three outcome groups (Nc p = 0.72, N290 p = 0.88, P400 p = 0.91). Marginal effects analyses found that within the LR group, a greater Nc Mother-Stranger response was associated with better expressive language skills on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, controlling for maternal education and outcome group effects (marginal effects dy/dx = 1.15; p < 0.01). No significant associations were observed between the Nc and language or social measures in HR-NoASD or HR-ASD groups. In contrast, specific to the HR-ASD group, amplitude difference between the Mother versus Stranger P400 response was positively associated with expressive (dy/dx = 2.1, p < 0.001) and receptive language skills at 12 months (dy/dx = 1.68, p < 0.005), and negatively associated with social affect scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (dy/dx = − 1.22, p < 0.001) at 18 months. Conclusions In 12-month-old infant siblings with subsequent ASD, increased P400 response to Mother over Stranger faces is positively associated with concurrent language and future social skills.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 296
Adane Kebede ◽  
Magnus Jirström ◽  
Alemayehu Worku ◽  
Kassahun Alemu ◽  
Hanna Y. Berhane ◽  

Vitamin A deficiency is common among preschoolers in low-income settings and a serious public health concern due to its association to increased morbidity and mortality. The limited consumption of vitamin A-rich food is contributing to the problem. Many factors may influence children’s diet, including residential food environment, household wealth, and maternal education. However, very few studies in low-income settings have examined the relationship of these factors to children’s diet together. This study aimed to assess the importance of residential food availability of three plant-based groups of vitamin A-rich foods, household wealth, and maternal education for preschoolers’ consumption of plant-based vitamin A-rich foods in Addis Ababa. A multistage sampling procedure was used to enroll 5467 households with under-five children and 233 residential food environments with 2568 vendors. Data were analyzed using a multilevel binary logistic regression model. Overall, 36% (95% CI: 34.26, 36.95) of the study children reportedly consumed at least one plant-based vitamin A-rich food group in the 24-h dietary recall period. The odds of consuming any plant-based vitamin A-rich food were significantly higher among children whose mothers had a higher education level (AOR: 2.55; 95% CI: 2.01, 3.25), those living in the highest wealth quintile households (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.92, 2.93), and in residentials where vitamin A-rich fruits were available (AOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.41). Further research in residential food environment is necessary to understand the purchasing habits, affordability, and desirability of plant-based vitamin A-rich foods to widen strategic options to improve its consumption among preschoolers in low-income and low-education communities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Siti Zaidar Lubis

Background: Stunting is condition a child's nutritional status that is not ideal which can Stunting is state of nutritional status children who are not ideal that can inhibit growth and development. Stunting events are influenced by various factors, namely birth length, exclusive breastfeeding history, family income, maternal education, maternal height nutrition knowledge, parity and parenting.Objective: Purpose this study is find the determinant stunting events in Alue Bilie Health Center of Nagan Raya Regency of Aceh Province.Method: The research design used is an observational comparative study with a case control approach. The population of this research is all mothers who have toddlers in Kuta Trieng Village. The number of samples is that all mothers have stunting toddlers as many as 42 people and toddlers who do not suffer from stunting as many as 42 people. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements of TB and age. Height using microtoise. Stunting was processed based on PMK no 2 of 2020. The data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test and Multiple Logistics Regression at a significance level of 95%.Results: Based on the results of the study found that there a relationship of exclusive breast milk history with stunting (ρ= 0.000), there a relationship of maternal nutritional knowledge with stunting (ρ= 0.000), there a income relationship with stunting (ρ= 0.024), there a relationship of maternal education with stunting (ρ= 0.034), exist parity relationship with stunting (ρ= 0.000), there a relationship of maternal height with stunting (ρ= 0.000) and there a parenting relationship with stunting (ρ= 0.003). Determinant factors that most affected stunting incidence were maternal height with an OR score of 24.8Conclusion: Factors that have a relationship with the incidence of stunting in toddlers in the work area of the Alue Bilie Health Center, Nagan Raya Regency, Aceh Province, namely the mother's education level, parity, exclusive breastfeeding, mother's level of knowledge, family income, mother's height and parenting patterns. The main determinant factors are parity, knowledge and maternal height.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Lara Yoon ◽  
Camila Corvalán ◽  
Ana Pereira ◽  
John Shepherd ◽  
Karin B. Michels

Abstract Background Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been associated with indirect markers of breast cancer risk, such as weight gain in adolescents and early menarche. How SSB intake relates to breast composition in adolescent girls has not been explored. Methods We evaluated the association between prospective intake of SSB and breast density in a cohort of 374 adolescent girls participating in the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study in Santiago, Chile. Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the association between average daily SSB intake quartiles and breast composition (absolute fibroglandular volume [aFGV], percent fibroglandular volume [%FGV], total breast volume [tBV]). Models were adjusted for potential confounding by BMI Z-score, age, daily energy intake (g/day), maternal education, hours of daily television watching after school, dairy intake (g/day), meat intake (g/day), waist circumference, and menarche. To examine the sensitivity of the association to the number of dietary recalls for each girl, analyses were further stratified by girls with one dietary recall and girls with > one dietary recall. Results A total of 881 dietary recalls were available for 374 girls prior to the breast density assessment. More than 60% of the cohort had > one dietary recall available. In multivariable analyses, we found no association between SSB intake quartile and aFGV (Q2 vs Q1 β: − 5.4, 95% CI − 15.1, 4.4; Q3 vs Q1 β: 1.3, 95% CI − 8.6, 11.3; Q4 vs Q1 β: 3.0, 95% CI − 7.1, 13). No associations were noted for %FGV and tBV. Among girls with at least one dietary recall, we found no significant associations between SSB intake quartiles and %FGV, aFGV, or tBV. Conclusion Overall, we observed no evidence that SSB intake was associated with breast density in adolescent Chilean girls.

2022 ◽  
pp. jech-2021-217754
Lixin Li ◽  
Yanpeng Wu ◽  
Yao Yang ◽  
Ying Wu ◽  
Yan Zhuang ◽  

BackgroundThe relationship between maternal education and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well documented. However, limited research has investigated maternal educational disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes in China. This study examined maternal educational inequalities associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in rural China.MethodsWe conducted a population-based cohort study using participants enrolled in the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project in Yunnan province from 2010 to 2018. The primary outcome was stillbirth, and the secondary outcome was adverse pregnancy outcomes, defined as a composite event of stillbirth, preterm birth or low birth weight. The study was restricted to singleton births at 20–42 weeks’ gestation. Univariate and multivariate log-binomial regression models were performed to estimate crude risk ratios (RRs) and confounding-adjusted RRs (ARRs) for stillbirth and adverse pregnancy outcomes according to maternal education level.ResultsA total of 197 722 singleton births were included in the study. Compared with mid-educated women, low-educated women were at a significantly increased risk of stillbirth (ARR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.38) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (ARR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.16). However, the risk of stillbirth (ARR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.35) was significantly higher for high-educated women compared with mid-educated women.ConclusionCompared with women with medium education level, women with lower education level were more likely to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, and women with higher education level were more likely to experience stillbirth.

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