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Saravanan Kalaivanan ◽  
Stebin Sebastian ◽  
Tadepalli Balaji Sai Swapnil ◽  
Nikhil Ch ◽  

As India is still a developing country, it has a lot of rural areas wherein the living conditions and standards are below world standards and may even be on the underdeveloped scale of living standards. In order to achieve development in these regions the first and foremost step to initiate is to improve the agriculture standards and methodologies and bring in new technology to improve the methods used in agriculture which is the major source of income to these people. This project is a four staged project which intends on improving the agriculture standards of India. The first stage of the project is an automated humidity and moisture control for the soil, this will help the farmers in automating certain aspects and hence eliminate certain human errors and improve yield. The second stage of the project is an agriculture auction portal wherein the farmers can directly auction their products to the wholesaler without the need of a middle man/broker. The third stage of the project is an android app which conducts various surveys and suggests a new farmer the type of farming/seeds to be planted / soil information and other such relevant data in respect to agriculture which would help increase the yield for a new farmer. The last part of the project is a seed cum financial bank which helps the farmers by providing financial as well as seed aid in times of financial crisis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anastasia Martin ◽  
Diane Nzelu ◽  
Annette Briley ◽  
Graham Tydeman ◽  
Andrew Shennan

Abstract Background The rate of second stage caesarean section (CS) is rising with associated increases in maternal and neonatal morbidity, which may be related to impaction of the fetal head in the maternal pelvis. In the last 10 years, two devices have been developed to aid disimpaction and reduce these risks: the Fetal Pillow (FP) and the Tydeman Tube (TT). The aim of this study was to determine the distance of upward fetal head elevation achieved on a simulator for second stage CS using these two devices, compared to the established technique of per vaginum digital disimpaction by an assistant. Methods We measured elevation of the fetal head achieved with the two devices (TT and FP), compared to digital elevation, on a second stage Caesearean simulator (Desperate Debra ™ set at three levels of severity. Elevation was measured by both a single operator experienced with use of the TT and FP and also multiple assistants with no previous experience of using either device. All measurements were blinded Results The trained user achieved greater elevation of the fetal head at both moderate and high levels of severity with the TT (moderate: 30mm vs 12.5mm p<0.001; most severe: 25mm vs 10mm p<0.001) compared to digital elevation. The FP provided comparable elevation to digital at both settings (moderate: 10 vs 12.5mm p=0.149; severe 10 vs 10mm p=0.44). With untrained users, elevation was also significantly greater with the TT compared to digital elevation (20mm vs 10mm p<0.01). However digital disimpaction was significantly greater than the FP (10mm vs 0mm p<0.0001). Conclusion On a simulator, with trained operators, the TT provided greater fetal head elevation than digital elevation and the FP. The FP achieved similar elevation to the digital technique, especially when the user was trained in the procedure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Felicia Amalia Moo-Koh ◽  
Jairo Cristóbal-Alejo ◽  
María Fé Andrés ◽  
Jesús Martín ◽  
Fernando Reyes ◽  

The nematicidal properties of Trichoderma species have potential for developing safer biocontrol agents. In the present study, 13 native Trichoderma strains from T. citrinoviride, T. ghanense (2 strains), T. harzianum (4), T. koningiopsis, T. simmonsii, and T. virens (4) with nematicidal activity were selected and cultured in potato dextrose broth to obtain a culture filtrate (CF) for each. Each CF was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain organic (EA) and residual filtrate (RF) fractions, which were then tested on second-stage juveniles (J2s) of the nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita in a microdilution assay. The most lethal strains were T. harzianum Th43-14, T. koningiopsis Th41-11, T. ghanense Th02-04, and T. virens Th32-09, which caused 51–100% mortality (%M) of J2s of both nematodes, mainly due to their RF fractions. Liquid chromatography–diode array detector-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the most-active fractions revealed sesquiterpene and polyketide-like metabolites produced by the four active strains. These native Trichoderma strains have a high potential to develop safer natural products for the biocontrol of Meloidogyne species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Patricia Peñacoba ◽  
Maria Antònia Llauger ◽  
Ana María Fortuna ◽  
Xavier Flor ◽  
Gabriel Sampol ◽  

Abstract Background The coordination between different levels of care is essential for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of this multicenter project was to develop a screening model for OSA in the primary care setting. Methods Anthropometric data, clinical history, and symptoms of OSA were recorded in randomly selected primary care patients, who also underwent a home sleep apnea test (HSAT). Respiratory polygraphy or polysomnography were performed at the sleep unit to establish definite indication for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). By means of cross-validation, a logistic regression model (CPAP yes/no) was designed, and with the clinical variables included in the model, a scoring system was established using the β coefficients (PASHOS Test). In a second stage, results of HSAT were added, and the final accuracy of the model was assessed. Results 194 patients completed the study. The clinical test included the body mass index, neck circumference and observed apneas during sleep (AUC 0.824, 95% CI 0.763–0.886, P < 0.001). In a second stage, the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) of 3% (ODI3% ≥ 15%) from the HSAT was added (AUC 0.911, 95% CI 0.863–0.960, P < 0.001), with a sensitivity of 85.5% (95% CI 74.7–92.1) and specificity of 67.8% (95% CI 55.1–78.3). Conclusions The use of this model would prevent referral to the sleep unit for 55.1% of the patients. The two-stage PASHOS model is a useful and practical screening tool for OSA in primary care for detecting candidates for CPAP treatment. Clinical Trial Registration Registry:; Name: PASHOS Project: Advanced Platform for Sleep Apnea Syndrome Assessment; URL:; Identifier: NCT02591979. Date of registration: October 30, 2015.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 834
Zhuang Li ◽  
Xincheng Tian ◽  
Xin Liu ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  
Xiaorui Shi

Aiming to address the currently low accuracy of domestic industrial defect detection, this paper proposes a Two-Stage Industrial Defect Detection Framework based on Improved-YOLOv5 and Optimized-Inception-ResnetV2, which completes positioning and classification tasks through two specific models. In order to make the first-stage recognition more effective at locating insignificant small defects with high similarity on the steel surface, we improve YOLOv5 from the backbone network, the feature scales of the feature fusion layer, and the multiscale detection layer. In order to enable second-stage recognition to better extract defect features and achieve accurate classification, we embed the convolutional block attention module (CBAM) attention mechanism module into the Inception-ResnetV2 model, then optimize the network architecture and loss function of the accurate model. Based on the Pascal Visual Object Classes 2007 (VOC2007) dataset, the public dataset NEU-DET, and the optimized dataset Enriched-NEU-DET, we conducted multiple sets of comparative experiments on the Improved-YOLOv5 and Inception-ResnetV2. The testing results show that the improvement is obvious. In order to verify the superiority and adaptability of the two-stage framework, we first test based on the Enriched-NEU-DET dataset, and further use AUBO-i5 robot, Intel RealSense D435 camera, and other industrial steel equipment to build actual industrial scenes. In experiments, a two-stage framework achieves the best performance of 83.3% mean average precision (mAP), evaluated on the Enriched-NEU-DET dataset, and 91.0% on our built industrial defect environment.

2022 ◽  
Mohammed El Hadi Attia ◽  
Fadl Abdelmonem Essa ◽  
Mohamed Abdelgaied ◽  
Abd elnaby Kabeel

Abstract Numerous studies are being conducted on solar desalination systems with creating new designs to improve the efficiency and yield of these systems. Hemispherical solar still has a relatively large throughput because of its large exposure and evaporation surface areas compared to the other distiller designs. To get the optimal conditions of the parameters that provide the highest productivity of the hemispherical still, three hemispherical basin stills were fabricated and tested. The experiments were performed in three stages: In the first one, the traditional hemispherical solar still THSS (a reference distiller) was compared by THSS with internal reflective mirrors (THSS-IRM). In the second stage, the effect of using different basin metals (THSS with basin metal of zinc (THSS-IRMZ) and basin metal of copper (THSS-IRMC)) with internal reflective mirrors was studied. In the third stage, the two distillers were investigated under using energy storage medium (30 g/L sand grains for each). The THSS with internal reflective mirrors, basin metal of zinc, and energy storage medium is abbreviated by THSS-IRMZSG. Also, THSS with internal reflective mirrors, basin metal of copper, and energy storage medium is abbreviated by THSS-IRMCSG. Moreover, THSS with internal reflective mirrors and energy storage medium is abbreviated by THSS-IRMSG. The results showed that the combination of using internal reflective mirrors, basin material (copper) and energy storage medium provided the best improvement of hemispherical distillation device. The maximum cumulative yield of THSS-IRMCSG was 11.9 L/m².day, while the reference distillation device gave a total yield of 4.65 L/m².day. So, the productivity was improved by around 156%.

Qiuyu Yang ◽  
Xiao Cao ◽  
Shasha Hu ◽  
Mingyao Sun ◽  
Honghao Lai ◽  

Background Different techniques have been reported to prevent perineal lacerations, but the effects of the use of lubricant have been unclear and is still subject of debate. Objective To assess the effect of lubricants on reducing perineal trauma during vaginal delivery. Search strategy PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), WanFang databases, in 25 June 2021. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials published in English or Chinese that compared the vaginal application of lubricant with standard care in women with cephalic presentation at vaginal delivery were included . Data collection and analysis Two independent reviewers selected eligible trials and extracted data on perineal trauma, duration of the second-stage labor, postpartum hemorrhage and Apgar score for meta-analysis. Main results Nineteen trials enrolling 5445 pregnant women were included. Compared with standard care, women using lubricants had a lower incidence of perineal trauma (RR 0.84, 95%CI 0.76 to 0.93), second-degree perineal laceration (RR 0.72, 95%CI 0.64 to 0.82) and episiotomy (RR 0.77, 95%CI 0.62 to 0.96), had a shorter duration of the second-stage labor (MD -13.72 minutes, 95%CI -22.68 to -4.77). Subgroup analysis indicated that women with obstetric gel had a shorter duration of the second-stage (MD -16.9 minutes, 95%CI -27.03 to -6.78 vs MD -8.38 minutes, 95%CI -11.11 to -5.65; P interaction=0.02) when compared with liquid wax. Conclusions Compared with standard care, lubricants could reduce the incidence of perineal trauma, especially second-degree perineal laceration, and shorten the duration of the second-stage labor.

Geffen Kleinstern ◽  
Roy Zigron ◽  
Shay Porat ◽  
Joshua I. Rosenbloom ◽  
Misgav Rottenstreich ◽  

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 480
Ziad Omran

Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1a1 (ALDH1a1), the enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinal into retinoic acid, represents a key therapeutic target for the treatment of debilitating disorders such as cancer, obesity, and inflammation. Drugs that can inhibit ALDH1a1 include disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug to treat chronic alcoholism. Disulfiram, by carbamylation of the catalytic cysteines, irreversibly inhibits ALDH1a1 and ALDH2. The latter is the isozyme responsible for important physiological processes such as the second stage of alcohol metabolism. Given the fact that ALDH1a1 has a larger substrate tunnel than that in ALDH2, replacing disulfiram ethyl groups with larger motifs will yield selective ALDH1a1 inhibitors. We report herein the synthesis of new inhibitors of ALDH1a1 where (hetero)aromatic rings were introduced into the structure of disulfiram. Most of the developed compounds retained the anti-ALDH1a1 activity of disulfiram; however, they were completely devoid of inhibitory activity against ALDH2.

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