spontaneous breathing
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2022 ◽  
Vol 67 ◽  
pp. 95-99
Arnaud Gacouin ◽  
Mathieu Lesouhaitier ◽  
Florian Reizine ◽  
Benoit Painvin ◽  
Adel Maamar ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Junpei Haruna ◽  
Hiroomi Tatsumi ◽  
Satoshi Kazuma ◽  
Aki Sasaki ◽  
Yoshiki Masuda

Abstract Background Extubation failure, i.e., reintubation in ventilated patients, is a well-known risk factor for mortality and prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Although sputum volume is a risk factor, the frequency of tracheal suctioning has not been validated as a predictor of reintubation. We conducted this study to examine whether frequent tracheal suctioning is a risk factor for reintubation. Patients and methods We included adult patients who were intubated for > 72 h in the ICU and extubated after completion of spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). We compared the characteristics and weaning-related variables, including the frequency of tracheal suctioning between patients who required reintubation within 24 h after extubation and those who did not, and examined the factors responsible for reintubation. Results Of the 400 patients enrolled, reintubation was required in 51 (12.8%). The most common cause of reintubation was difficulty in sputum excretion (66.7%). There were significant differences in sex, proportion of patients with chronic kidney disease, pneumonia, ICU admission type, the length of mechanical ventilation, and ICU stay between patients requiring reintubation and those who did not. Multivariate analysis showed frequent tracheal suction (> once every 2 h) and the length of mechanical ventilation were independent factors for predicting reintubation. Conclusion We should examine the frequency of tracheal suctioning > once every 2 h in addition to the length of mechanical ventilation before deciding to extubate after completion of SBT in patients intubated for > 72 h in the ICU.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alessandro Ghiani ◽  
Joanna Paderewska ◽  
Swenja Walcher ◽  
Konstantinos Tsitouras ◽  
Claus Neurohr ◽  

AbstractSince critical respiratory muscle workload is a significant determinant of weaning failure, applied mechanical power (MP) during artificial ventilation may serve for readiness testing before proceeding on a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study in 130 prolonged ventilated, tracheotomized patients. Calculated MP’s predictive SBT outcome performance was determined using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), measures derived from k-fold cross-validation (likelihood ratios, Matthew's correlation coefficient [MCC]), and a multivariable binary logistic regression model. Thirty (23.1%) patients failed the SBT, with absolute MP presenting poor discriminatory ability (MCC 0.26; AUROC 0.68, 95%CI [0.59‒0.75], p = 0.002), considerably improved when normalized to lung-thorax compliance (LTCdyn-MP, MCC 0.37; AUROC 0.76, 95%CI [0.68‒0.83], p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation PaCO2 (so-called power index of the respiratory system [PIrs]: MCC 0.42; AUROC 0.81 [0.73‒0.87], p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, PIrs (OR 1.48 per 1000 cmH2O2/min, 95%CI [1.24‒1.76], p < 0.001) and its components LTCdyn-MP (1.25 per 1000 cmH2O2/min, [1.06‒1.46], p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation PaCO2 (1.17 [1.06‒1.28], p < 0.001) were independently related to SBT failure. MP normalized to respiratory system compliance may help identify prolonged mechanically ventilated patients ready for spontaneous breathing.

OTO Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 2473974X2110650
Pierre Habrial ◽  
Maxime Léger ◽  
Fabienne Costerousse ◽  
Julie Debiasi ◽  
Renaud Breheret ◽  

Objective Avoiding tracheal intubation by using general anesthesia with spontaneous breathing (GASB) is attractive for upper airway panendoscopy. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of adverse events during panendoscopy under GASB and to assess the practices of French anesthesiologists. Study Design Two-phase study: monocentric retrospective study and national survey. Setting University hospital center. Methods Patients who underwent a panendoscopy under GASB at the University Hospital of Angers between January 1 and December 31, 2014, were reviewed. Failure of GASB was defined as an episode of hypoxemia (SpO2 ≤88%) or the need for face mask ventilation with or without tracheal intubation. Then, we sent an electronic survey to all members of the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Results Among the 95 included patients, 22 (23%) experienced a failure of GASB: 3 tolerated hypoxemia, 15 had face mask ventilation episodes, and 4 were intubated. Three factors were associated with failure: obesity (odds ratio, 11.94; 95% CI, 3.20-44.64), history of difficult intubation defined as a Cormack score ≥3 (odds ratio, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.51-25.41), and laryngeal tumor (odds ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.04-7.56). Among the 3930 members of the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care in 2018, 662 (16.8%) responded to the survey. The 2 preferred techniques to perform panendoscopy were intubation (62%) and intravenous sedation with spontaneous breathing (37%). Conclusion Although general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation remains the preferred technique for panendoscopy in France, GASB is an attractive alternative with a low failure rate. Risk factors for failure are obesity, history of difficult intubation, and laryngeal tumor.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (6) ◽  
pp. 2220-23
Ghulam Rasheed ◽  
Zahid Siddique Shad ◽  
Tooba Mehreen ◽  
Nusrat Kharadi ◽  
Moazma Ramzan ◽  

Objective: To ascertain the ideal number of B-lines on lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of weaning induced pulmonary edema in ventilated patients. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from Jan to Aug 2020. Methodology: All the patients over the age of 18 years who were on mechanical ventilation in a medical intensive care unit were included in the study. The patients were given spontaneous breathing trials as a protocol for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Lung ultrasound was performed on 4 points of anterior chest wall before and after spontaneous breathing trials. Before and after spontaneous breathing trials counting of B lines was done on ultrasound of lung and comparison of increase in B lines (Delta-B-lines) was done with reference diagnosis of weaning induced pulmonary edema diagnosed by intensivist who was blinded to the results of lung ultrasound. Results: The study included 42 patients including 23 (54.8%) men and 19 (45.2%) women. 14 cases failed spontaneous breathing trials. Seven cases (16.7%) had weaning induced pulmonary edema. Delta-B-lines ≥6 diagnosed weaning induced pulmonary edema with 100% accuracy. Out of the remaining seven patients with weaning failure but without weaning induced pulmonary edema, 6 (28.6%) had Delta-B-lines ≥6. The ultrasound lung technique had a 100% sensitivity profile to detect weaning induced pulmonary edema and a specificity of 77.78%. Conclusion: The study indicates that Delta-B-lines ≥6 diagnosed the weaning induced pulmonary edema with the best accuracy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 86 (1) ◽  
pp. 398-401
Mohamed Elsayed Elsetouhi ◽  
Lotfy Mohamed Elsayed ◽  
Ali Abd El-Hameed Abdo ◽  
M. M. Shehab

Lukas M. Müller‐Wirtz ◽  
Florian Behne ◽  
Azzeddine Kermad ◽  
Gudrun Wagenpfeil ◽  
Matthias Schroeder ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Tessa Martherus ◽  
Kristel L. A. M. Kuypers ◽  
Stefan Böhringer ◽  
Janneke Dekker ◽  
Ruben S. G. M. Witlox ◽  

Background: Preterm infants are commonly supported with 5–8 cmH2O CPAP. However, animal studies demonstrate that high initial CPAP levels (12–15 cmH2O) which are then reduced (termed physiological based (PB)-CPAP), improve lung aeration without adversely affecting cardiovascular function. We investigated the feasibility of PB-CPAP and the effect in preterm infants at birth.Methods: Preterm infants (24–30 weeks gestation) were randomized to PB-CPAP or 5–8 cmH2O CPAP for the first 10 min after birth. PB-CPAP consisted of 15 cmH2O CPAP that was decreased when infants were stabilized (heart rate ≥100 bpm, SpO2 ≥85%, FiO2 ≤ 0.4, spontaneous breathing) to 8 cmH2O with steps of ~2/3 cmH2O/min. Primary outcomes were feasibility and SpO2 in the first 5 min after birth. Secondary outcomes included physiological and breathing parameters and short-term neonatal outcomes. Planned enrollment was 42 infants.Results: The trial was stopped after enrolling 31 infants due to a low inclusion rate and recent changes in the local resuscitation guideline that conflict with the study protocol. Measurements were available for analysis in 28 infants (PB-CPAP n = 8, 5–8 cmH2O n = 20). Protocol deviations in the PB-CPAP group included one infant receiving 3 inflations with 15 cmH2O PEEP and two infants in which CPAP levels were decreased faster than described in the study protocol. In the 5–8 cmH2O CPAP group, three infants received 4, 10, and 12 cmH2O CPAP. During evaluations, caregivers indicated that the current PB-CPAP protocol was difficult to execute. The SpO2 in the first 5 min after birth was not different [61 (49–70) vs. 64 (47–74), p = 0.973]. However, infants receiving PB-CPAP achieved higher heart rates [121 (111–130) vs. 97 (82–119) bpm, p = 0.016] and duration of mask ventilation was shorter [0:42 (0:34–2:22) vs. 2:58 (1:36–6:03) min, p = 0.020]. Infants in the PB-CPAP group required 6:36 (5:49-11:03) min to stabilize, compared to 9:57 (6:58–15:06) min in the 5–8 cmH2O CPAP group (p = 0.256). There were no differences in short-term outcomes.Conclusion: Stabilization of preterm infants with PB-CPAP is feasible but tailoring CPAP appeared challenging. PB-CPAP did not lead to higher SpO2 but increased heart rate and shortened the duration of mask ventilation, which may reflect faster lung aeration.

Respiration ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jacopo Saccomanno ◽  
Christoph Ruwwe-Glösenkamp ◽  
Konrad Neumann ◽  
Felix Doellinger ◽  
Pavlina Lenga ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Endobronchial valve therapy has proven to reduce lung hyperinflation and decrease disease burden in patients with severe lung emphysema. Exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) of the targeted lobe by using an endobronchial assessment system (Chartis; PulmonX, Drive Redwood City, CA, USA) in combination with software-based fissure integrity analysis (FCS [fissure completeness score]) of computed tomography scans of the lung are established tools to select appropriate patients for endobronchial valve treatment. So far, there is no conclusive evidence if the ventilation mode during bronchoscopy impacts the outcome of Chartis assessments. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Patients with Chartis assessments and software-based quantification of FCS (StratX; PulmonX, Drive Redwood City, CA, USA) were enrolled in this retrospective study. During bronchoscopy, pulmonary fissure integrity was evaluated with the Chartis assessment system in each patient first under spontaneous breathing and subsequently under high-frequency (HF) jet ventilation. <b><i>Results:</i></b> In total, 102 patients were analyzed. Four Chartis phenotypes CV positive (CV+), CV negative (CV−), low flow, and low plateau in spontaneous breathing and HF jet ventilation were identified. The frequency of each Chartis phenotype per lobe was similar in both settings. When comparing Chartis assessments in spontaneous breathing and HF jet ventilation, there was an overall good concordance rate for all analyzed fissures. In agreement, receiver operating characteristic analysis of the FCS showed an almost similar prediction for CV+ and CV− status independent of the ventilation modes. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Chartis assessment in spontaneous breathing and HF jet ventilation had similar rates in detecting CV in lung emphysema. Our results suggest that both modes are equivalent for the assessment of CV.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Longxiang Su ◽  
Pan Pan ◽  
Huaiwu He ◽  
Dawei Liu ◽  
Yun Long

Pulse pressure variation (PPV) is a mandatory index for hemodynamic monitoring during mechanical ventilation. The changes in pleural pressure (Ppl) and transpulmonary pressure (PL) caused by mechanical ventilation are the basis for PPV and lead to the effect of blood flow. If the state of hypovolemia exists, the effect of the increased Ppl during mechanical ventilation on the right ventricular preload will mainly affect the cardiac output, resulting in a positive PPV. However, PL is more influenced by the change in alveolar pressure, which produces an increase in right heart overload, resulting in high PPV. In particular, if spontaneous breathing is strong, the transvascular pressure will be extremely high, which may lead to the promotion of alveolar flooding and increased RV flow. Asynchronous breathing and mediastinal swing may damage the pulmonary circulation and right heart function. Therefore, according to the principle of PPV, a high PPV can be incorporated into the whole respiratory treatment process to monitor the mechanical ventilation cycle damage/protection regardless of the controlled ventilation or spontaneous breathing. Through the monitoring of PPV, the circulation-protective ventilation can be guided at bedside in real time by PPV.

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