binary logistic regression model
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Khwaja ◽  
S. I. Hussain ◽  
M. Zahid ◽  
Z. Aziz ◽  
A. Akram ◽  

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tingting Jiang ◽  
Buyun Yang ◽  
Bo Yang ◽  
Bo Wu ◽  
Guoguang Wan

Purpose The environment of international business (IB) and the capabilities of emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) as well as their home countries have changed significantly, leading to some new features of liability of origin (LOR). This paper aims to extend the LOR literature by particularly focusing on the LOR of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs) and by taking into account the heterogeneity among industries and across individual MNEs. Design/methodology/approach Based on the stereotype content model and organizational legitimacy perspective, this study explores how LOR influences Chinese MNEs’ cross-border acquisition completions. Several hypotheses were tested by using a binary logistic regression model with panel data techniques based on data of 780 Chinese MNEs’ acquisition deals between 2008 and 2018. Findings The results of this study show that when the competence dimension of China’s LOR is perceived as high in the host country, Chinese MNEs are less likely to complete cross-border acquisitions. Moreover, deals are less likely to be completed when the warmth dimension of China’s LOR is perceived to be low. Global experience and the foreign-listed status of individual Chinese MNEs can alter the relationship between the LOR and deal completions. Originality/value This study advances and enriches the LOR research. It shows that a high level of competence in the home country has led to LOR for Chinese MNEs rather than the low level of competence proposed by existing LOR studies; and the LOR for Chinese MNEs is also determined by the perceived low level of warmth in the home country resulting from the geopolitical conflicts between two countries. In addition, the LOR suffered by EMNEs could vary based on certain industry- and firm-level characteristics. The findings of this study provide important practical implications for emerging economy governments and for firms intending to go abroad.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Assaye Belay ◽  
Tessema Astatkie ◽  
Solomon Abebaw ◽  
Bekele Gebreamanule ◽  
Wegayehu Enbeyle

Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a health care intervention intended to ensure the safety of pregnancy. According to the World Health Organization, at least four ANC visits are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. However, whether this recommended number of visits was followed or not in the rural areas of Southwestern Ethiopia is not known. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the prevalence of, and the associated factors of ANC utilization by pregnant women in the rural areas of Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study design was used in three rural zones. The data were collected from n = 978 women through a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interview. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a multiple binary logistic regression model. Results The results showed that 56% of women made the recommended minimum number of ANC visits and the remaining 44% of them underutilized the ANC service. The multiple binary logistic regression model identified zone, marital status of the woman, educational level of the husband, occupation of the husband, knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, birth interval, source of information, timely visits, and transportation problem to be statistically significant factors affecting the prevalence of ANC visit utilization of women. Bench Maji zone had smaller odds ratio of ANC visit prevalence as compared to Kaffa zone. Women who lived in the rural area of Sheko zone are 2.67 times less likely to utilize ANC visit than those who lived in the rural area of Kaffa zone keeping other variables constant. Conclusion The study results highlight the need to increase the number of ANC visits, and the importance of using an appropriate model to determine the important socio-demographic factors that ANC service providers shall focus on to improve the health of the unborn baby and the mother during pregnancy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Walter Magero Wafula ◽  
Oliver Vivian Wasonga ◽  
Oscar Kipchirchir Koech ◽  
Staline Kibet

AbstractPastoralism is globally recognized as the backbone of the economy in the vast arid and semi-arid rangelands. Despite its enormous economic contribution, the system is facing a myriad of challenges, among them, land use and land tenure changes, resulting in diminished grazing land. Accompanying such changes is the conversion of traditional grazing lands into other uses such as settlements, with urbanization being one of the key drivers of pastoral system dynamics. Understanding such dynamics in the face of compounding factors such as frequent droughts linked to climate change is key in guiding policy formulation and interventions aimed at achieving a sustainable pastoral production system. This study investigated factors determining migration and settlement of pastoralists in Nairobi City of Kenya. Data was collected through a snowball sampling approach using semi-structured household questionnaires, focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) in five Sub-counties of Nairobi City County. A total of 144 household interviews, 6 FGDs and 16 KIIs were conducted to elucidate drivers of urban pastoralism, opportunities and challenges encountered by pastoralists in the city. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyse the determinants of their migration. Results show that search for pasture and water resources, and alternative markets especially during droughts, are the main reasons for pastoralists’ migration to the city. In addition, educated herders were found to be more likely to migrate to the city as they pursue wage employment. Whereas these findings revealed that migration to the city exposes pastoralists to diverse livelihood opportunities, they are equally faced by a number of challenges - mainly road accidents involving livestock, frequent land displacements to pave way for development of real estates, and livestock poisoning from sewage and garbage wastes. There is a need for policy and regulatory interventions to recognize pastoralism alongside other forms of urban farming and addressing challenges facing sustainable pastoral production.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 296
Adane Kebede ◽  
Magnus Jirström ◽  
Alemayehu Worku ◽  
Kassahun Alemu ◽  
Hanna Y. Berhane ◽  

Vitamin A deficiency is common among preschoolers in low-income settings and a serious public health concern due to its association to increased morbidity and mortality. The limited consumption of vitamin A-rich food is contributing to the problem. Many factors may influence children’s diet, including residential food environment, household wealth, and maternal education. However, very few studies in low-income settings have examined the relationship of these factors to children’s diet together. This study aimed to assess the importance of residential food availability of three plant-based groups of vitamin A-rich foods, household wealth, and maternal education for preschoolers’ consumption of plant-based vitamin A-rich foods in Addis Ababa. A multistage sampling procedure was used to enroll 5467 households with under-five children and 233 residential food environments with 2568 vendors. Data were analyzed using a multilevel binary logistic regression model. Overall, 36% (95% CI: 34.26, 36.95) of the study children reportedly consumed at least one plant-based vitamin A-rich food group in the 24-h dietary recall period. The odds of consuming any plant-based vitamin A-rich food were significantly higher among children whose mothers had a higher education level (AOR: 2.55; 95% CI: 2.01, 3.25), those living in the highest wealth quintile households (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.92, 2.93), and in residentials where vitamin A-rich fruits were available (AOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.41). Further research in residential food environment is necessary to understand the purchasing habits, affordability, and desirability of plant-based vitamin A-rich foods to widen strategic options to improve its consumption among preschoolers in low-income and low-education communities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alessandro Ghiani ◽  
Joanna Paderewska ◽  
Swenja Walcher ◽  
Konstantinos Tsitouras ◽  
Claus Neurohr ◽  

AbstractSince critical respiratory muscle workload is a significant determinant of weaning failure, applied mechanical power (MP) during artificial ventilation may serve for readiness testing before proceeding on a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study in 130 prolonged ventilated, tracheotomized patients. Calculated MP’s predictive SBT outcome performance was determined using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), measures derived from k-fold cross-validation (likelihood ratios, Matthew's correlation coefficient [MCC]), and a multivariable binary logistic regression model. Thirty (23.1%) patients failed the SBT, with absolute MP presenting poor discriminatory ability (MCC 0.26; AUROC 0.68, 95%CI [0.59‒0.75], p = 0.002), considerably improved when normalized to lung-thorax compliance (LTCdyn-MP, MCC 0.37; AUROC 0.76, 95%CI [0.68‒0.83], p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation PaCO2 (so-called power index of the respiratory system [PIrs]: MCC 0.42; AUROC 0.81 [0.73‒0.87], p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, PIrs (OR 1.48 per 1000 cmH2O2/min, 95%CI [1.24‒1.76], p < 0.001) and its components LTCdyn-MP (1.25 per 1000 cmH2O2/min, [1.06‒1.46], p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation PaCO2 (1.17 [1.06‒1.28], p < 0.001) were independently related to SBT failure. MP normalized to respiratory system compliance may help identify prolonged mechanically ventilated patients ready for spontaneous breathing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-28
Lakshmavva Gondi ◽  
Utalbasha Dhandargi ◽  
Deelip S Natekar

Introduction: Dietary diversity is defined as the number of food groups or items consumed over a reference period. A good diverse diet is necessary to furnish the daily nutritional requirements of body. Inadequate dietary diversity is one of major public health problem and can result in unhealthy physical, emotional and psychological changes among adolescents. Objective of the study was to determine dietary diversity and its relationship with nutritional status of adolescents studying in high school. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 12 to April 03, 2021, among a total of 120 adolescents, selected using the stratified random sampling technique. The study was conducted in Kalidas high school, Bagalkot. A structured and prepared questionnaire was used to collect baseline data. Dietary diversity was measured by Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) 2020 using the food items method. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was employed to identify the association of nutritional status and dietary diversity among adolescents. Result: Mean age of sample was 15.14 ± 0.81 years. The mean height for age was 1.63 S.D± .880 S.D. The mean BMI for age Z score was 1.73 SD ± .579 SD. The mean BMI for thinness Z score was 2.35 SD ± 1.301SD.Logistic regression analysis revealed that there was no significant association (P< 0.202) found between dietary diversity and nutritional status of adolescents. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that only one-third of both (boys and girls) have adequate dietary diversity. Low level of dietary diversification suggested points to the need for strengthening efforts targeting to improve the healthy dietary practice of adolescents by giving due attention to poor households and undernourished adolescents. Keywords: dietary diversity, nutritional status, adolescents, High school, unhealthy dietary pattern.

2022 ◽  
Mojtaba Shafiekhani ◽  
Zahra Shekari ◽  
Arash Boorboor ◽  
Zahra Zare ◽  
Sara Arabsheybani ◽  

Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2, a novel corona virus, has caused clusters of fatal pneumonia worldwide. Immune compromised patients are among the high risk groups with poor prognosis of the disease. The presence of bacterial or fungal co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with increased mortality. Methods The electronic data of the liver and kidney recipients, hospitalized in COVID-19 intensive care unit in an 8-month period in 2020 were retrospectively assessed. The documented bacterial or fungal infections alongside with outcome and risk factors were recorded and analyzed by binary logistic regression model and multivariate analyses. Results Sixty-Six liver and kidney recipients were included this study. Twenty one percent of the patients had at least one episode of co-infection during their COVID-19 course. Bacterial and fungal co-infections contributed to a significantly higher mortality. Urine and sputum were the most common sites of pathogen isolation (45.45 % and 36.36%; respectively). The majority of infections were caused by vancomycin- resistant Enterococci (30%). Escherichia coli stood in the next position with 23.3%. Prior hospitalization and high does corticosteroid use were associated with co-infections (p=0<0.001 and p=0.02; respectively.)Conclusions Bacterial and fungal co-infections with COVID-19 are more prevalent in solid organ recipients compared to the general population. Prior hospitalizations and use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents lead to emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens in this susceptible patient population. Early detection and treatment of co-infections as well as antibiotic stewardship is recommended in solid organ recipients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Tirapoot Jatupornpoonsub ◽  
Paramat Thimachai ◽  
Ouppatham Supasyndh ◽  
Yodchanan Wongsawat

The Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) was initially proposed to evaluate malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Although MICS should be routinely evaluated to reduce the hospitalization and mortality rate of ESRD patients, the inconvenience of the MIS might limit its use. Cerebral complications in ESRD, possibly induced by MICS, were previously assessed by using spectral electroencephalography (EEG) via the delta/theta ratio and microstate analysis. Correspondingly, EEG could be used to directly assess MICS in ESRD patients, but the relationships among MICS and these EEG features remain inconclusive. Thus, we aimed to investigate the delta/theta ratio and microstates in ESRD patients with high and low risks of MICS. We also attempted to identify the correlation among the MIS, delta/theta ratio, and microstate parameters, which might clarify their relationships. To achieve these objectives, a total of forty-six ESRD subjects were willingly recruited. We collected their blood samples, MIS, and EEGs after receiving written informed consent. Sixteen women and seven men were allocated to low risk group (MIS ≤ 5, age 57.57 ± 14.88 years). Additionally, high risk group contains 15 women and 8 men (MIS &gt; 5, age 59.13 ± 11.77 years). Here, we discovered that delta/theta ratio (p &lt; 0.041) and most microstate parameters (p &lt; 0.001) were significantly different between subject groups. We also found that the delta/theta ratio was not correlated with MIS but was strongly with the average microstate duration (ρ = 0.708, p &lt; 0.001); hence, we suggested that the average microstate duration might serve as an alternative encephalopathy biomarker. Coincidentally, we noticed positive correlations for most parameters of microstates A and B (0.54 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.68, p &lt; 0.001) and stronger negative correlations for all microstate C parameters (−0.75 ≤ ρ ≤ −0.61, p &lt; 0.001). These findings unveiled a novel EEG biomarker, the MIC index, that could efficiently distinguish ESRD patients at high and low risk of MICS when utilized as a feature in a binary logistic regression model (accuracy of train-test split validation = 1.00). We expected that the average microstate duration and MIC index might potentially contribute to monitor ESRD patients in the future.

Hussain Ali ◽  
Qaisar Khalid Mahmood ◽  
Aisha Jalil ◽  
Florian Fischer

Abstract Introduction Home delivery is a predominant driver of maternal and neonatal deaths in developing countries. Despite the efforts of international organizations in Pakistan, home childbirth is common in the remote and rural areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. We studied women’s position within the household (socio-economic dependence, maternal health decision making, and social mobility) and its association with the preference for home delivery. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional household survey among 503 ever-married women of reproductive age (15–49 years), who have had childbirth in the last twelve months or were pregnant (more than 6 months) at the time of the interview. A two-stage cluster sampling technique has been used for recruitment. Descriptive and bivariate analyses have been conducted. A binary logistic regression model was calculated to present odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for factor associated with home delivery. Results An inferior status of women, restrictions in mobility and limited power in decision making related to household purchases, maternal health care, and outdoor socializing are contributing factors of home delivery. Furthermore, women having faced intimate partner violence were much more likely to deliver at home (OR = 2.66, 95% CI:, p < 0.001). Discussion We concluded that women are in a position with minimal authority in decision making to access and deliver the baby in any health facility. We recommend that the government should ensure the availability of health facilities in nearby locations to increase institutional deliveries in the study area.

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