morphological response
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Geonhee Hwang ◽  
Jeeyoon Park ◽  
Soohwan Kim ◽  
Jeonghyang Park ◽  
Dain Seo ◽  

Thermomorphogenesis is the morphological response of plants to an elevation in the ambient temperature, which is mediated by the bHLH transcription factor PIF4. The evening-expressed clock component, PRR5, directly represses the expression of PIF4 mRNA. Additionally, PRR5 interacts with PIF4 protein and represses its transactivation activity, which in turn suppresses the thermoresponsive growth in the evening. Here, we found that the B-box zinc finger protein, BBX18, interacts with PRR5 through the B-Box2 domain. Deletion of the B-Box2 domain abolished the functions of BBX18, including the stimulation of PIF4 mRNA expression and hypocotyl growth. Overexpression of BBX18, and not of B-Box2-deleted BBX18, restored the expression of thermoresponsive genes in the evening. We further show that BBX18 prevents PRR5 from inhibiting PIF4-mediated high temperature responses. Taken together, our results suggest that BBX18 regulates thermoresponsive growth through the PRR5-PIF4 pathway.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jose R. Aguilar Cosme ◽  
Dan C. Gagui ◽  
Helen E. Bryant ◽  
Frederik Claeyssens

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment which uses light-activated compounds to produce reactive oxygen species, leading to membrane damage and cell death. Multicellular cancer spheroids are a preferable alternative for PDT evaluation in comparison to monolayer cell cultures due to their ability to better mimic in vivo avascular tumour characteristics such as hypoxia and cell-cell interactions, low cost, and ease of production. However, inconsistent growth kinetics and drug responsiveness causes poor experimental reproducibility and limits their usefulness. Herein, we used image analysis to establish a link between human melanoma C8161 spheroid morphology and drug responsiveness. Spheroids were pre-selected based on sphericity, area, and diameter, reducing variation in experimental groups before treatment. Spheroid morphology after PDT was analyzed using AnaSP and ReViSP, MATLAB-based open-source software, obtaining nine different parameters. Spheroids displayed a linear response between biological assays and morphology, with area (R2 = 0.7219) and volume (R2 = 0.6138) showing the best fit. Sphericity, convexity, and solidity were confirmed as poor standalone indicators of spheroid viability. Our results indicate spheroid morphometric parameters can be used to accurately screen inefficient treatment combinations of novel compounds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 911 (1) ◽  
pp. 012014
Muhammad Hamzah Solim ◽  
Sherly Rahayu

Abstract New rice varieties could be released by various plant breeding methods including mutation induction using gamma rays irradiation. Radiosensitivity and LD50 values (Lethal Dose, 50%) can be determined from the morphological response of plants to irradiation treatment in M1 generation. The research aims to determine the value of LD50 and the performance of rice mutant traits of Mira-1 and Bestari. The experiment was conducted using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors (rice varieties and gamma irradiation doses) and three replications. The plant traits observed were the percentage of germination, seedling height, and root length in the seedling phase. The results showed that LD50 values in the Mira-1 and Bestari varieties differed in all observed characters. The optimum dose to induce rice mutation of the varieties under investigation is within the range of 521.40 – 663.68 Gy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1182
Cody L. Johnson ◽  
Brian C. McFall ◽  
Douglas R. Krafft ◽  
Mitchell E. Brown

Nearshore nourishments are constructed for shoreline protection from waves, to provide sediment nourishment to the beach profile, and to beneficially use dredged sediment from navigation channel maintenance. However, it is poorly understood how placement morphology and depth influence nearshore processes operated on wave-dominated coasts. This study investigates the wave fields, sediment transport, and morphological response to three common nearshore nourishment shapes, nearshore berm (elongated bar), undulated nearshore berm, and small discrete mounds, with numerical experiments utilizing the Coastal Modeling System. The nourishments are placed in depths between 3 m and 7 m with a volume of approximately 100,000 m3 and between 400 m and 1000 m in alongshore length. Numerical experiments are carried out in three distinct coastal settings with representative wave climates and geomorphology. Simulation results indicate that shallower, more continuous berms attenuate the most wave energy, while deeper, more diffuse placements retain more sediment. Results from this study improve the understanding of nearshore nourishment shapes and can support decision makers identifying the most appropriate construction technique for future nearshore nourishment projects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (11) ◽  
Tri Wahono Dyah Ayu Sayekti ◽  

Abstract. Sayekti TWDA, Syukur M, Hidayat SH, Maharijaya A. 2021. Morphological response and genetic variability of four species of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) under infection of pepper yellow leaf curl virus. Biodiversitas 22: 4758-4765. Chili pepper has various types and species, but only five known species are commonly used and consumed. Most cultivated chili is susceptible to various plant diseases, one of which is Pepper yellow leaf curl disease (PYLCD) caused by Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV) (Begomovirus, Geminiviridae). To control PYLCD, resistant variety assembly is required to prevent virus infection in cultivated plants. From this research, testing on four chili species is expected to provide information regarding the resistance and performance of chili peppers to conditions infected with PYLCV. This study was conducted at Dramaga Bogor, West Java, Indonesia in two experimental units: planting under virus-free conditions (as control) and virus-infected conditions. Each experimental unit was carried out using a single factor Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Twenty-nine genotypes of chili pepper were used consisted of four species, including C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, and C. baccatum. Of the 29 genotypes tested, thirteen genotypes in the resistant, nine genotypes in moderate resistant, two genotypes in moderate susceptible, three genotypes in the Susceptible, and two genotypes in the highly susceptible category. The heritability, genotypic coefficient of variance (GCOV) and phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCOV) value obtained from testing for all characters is high, ranging from 65.16-99.12%, 14.87-82.60%, and 15.77-84.45%, respectively. Most of the genotypes from C. chinense showed good resistance to PYLCV. In general, by considering the category of the resistance level and other characters such as productivity, ‘Jolokia’ (C. chinense), ‘Anies’ (C. annuum) and ‘Bonita’ (C. frutescens) can be ascertained as potential candidate sources of resistance to PYLCV.

O. A. Osinowo ◽  
C. C. Ogbonna ◽  
A. M. Omoare

Aims: Growth performance and gut morphological response of broiler chickens fed moist fermented diets with the inclusion of probiotics or/and organic acids were evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial. Place and Duration of Study: Poultry unit of the Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria between February 2018 and April 2018 Methodology: Three hundred one-day old unsexed Abor Acre broilers were used for this study. They were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The experimental treatments were: Diet 1: Dry Unfermented Feed (DUF) - Probiotics (Pr) – Organic acids (Or), Diet 2: Moist Fermented Feed (MFF) – Pr – Or, Diet 3: MFF + Pr, Diet 4: MFF + Or, Diet 5: MFF + Pr + Or. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design. Results: The feed conversion ratio of broiler starters fed diet 5 (1.96) was significantly (P<.0001) better relative to those of birds fed other diets (2.27, 2.21, 2.14 and 2.13 respectively), while birds in treatment 1 (2.27) had significantly (P<.0001) poor feed conversion ratio. There were no significant (P>.05) differences in the feed conversion ratio of broiler finishers fed MFF with or without feed additives (2.68, 2.64, 2.55 and 2.55). However, the value of feed conversion ratio of birds fed DUF (3.04) was significantly (P=.05) the highest. The duodenal villus height to crypt depth ratio of broiler starters fed MFF+ Pr + Or (7.11) was significantly (P=.05) higher than those of birds fed other diets (2.70, 3.35, 3.98, 4.73 respectively). Conclusion: Although, feed fermentation enhanced gut morphological parameters which correlates improved growth performance of broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics (1g/kg) and organic acids (1g/kg) in the fermentation process further improved the growth indicators of broiler chickens used in this study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 498 ◽  
pp. 119569
Ulrich Zang ◽  
Michael Goisser ◽  
Nele Meyer ◽  
Karl-Heinz Häberle ◽  
Werner Borken

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