feed additives
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 523-540
Jorge Augusto Dias da Costa Abreu ◽  
Mikael Neumann ◽  
Wagner Paris ◽  
André Martins de Souza ◽  

Essential oils and enzymes are alternatives to feed additives for ruminants that aim to replace the use of ionophores and improve animal performance, but their mechanisms of action are different. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify if there is a synergistic effect in the combined use of enzymes carbohydrates and essential oils on the performance, ingestive behavior and carcass traits of steers fed a high-energy diet. During the finishing period of 78 days, 40 steers were assigned to four treatments: CON- control; ENZ- enzymatic complex; EO- essential oil blend; ENZ+EO - enzymatic complex combined with essential oil blend. Regardless of the feedlot periods, the ENZ+EO treatment caused a reduction in the dry matter intake (12.48%) compared to the control. The ENZ+EO treatment resulted in the lowest mean fecal output and, consequently, the highest dry matter digestibility (DMD) and starch digestibility (SD), compared to the other treatments. Animals that received EO and ENZ+EO in the diet spent more time in feeding. As for the number of times animals visited the feeding trough, the highest values were presented by the animals in the EO, ENZ and ENZ+EO treatments. For the carcass parameters, only the subcutaneous fat thickness on the rib was significantly different between treatments, with the highest values obtained by adding EO and ENZ+EO (8.80 and 8.10 mm respectively). Thus, the combination of carbohydrate enzymes and essential oils proved to be synergistically beneficial in relation to better use of nutrients and productive performance of feedlot steers.

2023 ◽  
Vol 77 (11) ◽  
pp. 6589-2023

The aim of the study was to review the results of scientific research on the effect of herbs and phytogenic feed additives used in poultry nutrition on animal welfare, breeding conditions, and the quality of meat. The article explains the importance of feed additives used in poultry nutrition. It discusses the role of herbs and phytogenic feed additives in nutrition in the context of the increasing demand for and consumption of poultry meat. The article also analyzes the influence of herbs and phytogenic feed additives on animal welfare, rearing conditions, and meat quality. The results of research on the effect of herbs and phytogenic feed additives used in poultry nutrition are not unequivocal. In view of the high demand for poultry meat, there is need for continued research on the optimal composition of herbal mixtures in nutrition to obtain good breeding conditions and high quality meat.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 207
Wenchong Lan ◽  
Chunxia Yao ◽  
Fan Luo ◽  
Zhi Jin ◽  
Siwen Lu ◽  

Pig manure (PM) is often highly enriched in heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, due to the wide use of feed additives. To study the potential risks of heavy metal accumulation in the soil and rice grains by the application of PM and other organic manure, a four-year field experiment was conducted in the suburb of Shanghai, southeast China. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the soils and rice plants by the treatments of PM and fungal culturing residues (FCR) show a trend of annual increase. Those in the soils and rice by the PM treatment are raised even more significantly. Cu and Zn contents in the soil and rice roots by the PM are significantly higher than those by the non-fertilizer control (CK) during the four years, and Pb and Cd also significantly higher than CK in the latter two years. Heavy metals taken up by the rice plants are mostly retained in the roots. Cu and Zn contents in the rice plants are in the decreasing order of roots > grains > stems > leaves, and Pb and Cd in the order of roots > stems > leaves > grains. Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd contents in the soils by the PM treatment increase by 73%, 32%, 106%, and 127% on annual average, and those in the brown rice by 104%, 98%, 275%, and 199%, respectively. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the brown rice of the treatments are significantly correlated with those in the soils and rice roots (p < 0.05), suggesting the heavy metals accumulated in the rice grains come from the application of PM and FCR. Though the contents of heavy metals in the brown rice during the four experimental years are still within the safe levels, the risks of their accumulative increments, especially by long-term application of PM, can never be neglected.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Prosper Jambwa ◽  
Fikile N. Makhubu ◽  
Gift Matope ◽  
Gerda Fouche ◽  
Lyndy J. McGaw

There has been burgeoning interest in plant-based feed additives following restrictions placed on the use of antibiotic feed additives in many countries. Phytogenic feed additives are recommended to have a range of useful properties to support the growth and development of poultry to a similar level as that obtained by supplementing feed with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, anti-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activity, and in vitro safety of fractions and isolated compounds from leaves of Senna singueana. Antibacterial activities of the fractions and isolated compounds were determined against a panel of bacteria using a two-fold serial microdilution assay and qualitative bioautography assays. Anti-lipoxygenase activity was evaluated using the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) method. Antioxidant activity was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using radical scavenging assays. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions from solvent-solvent partitioning had the best antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 156 to 313 μg/ml. Fractions obtained from column chromatography had significant to weak antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 50 to 1,250 μg/ml. Bioautography showed clear bands of bacterial inhibition, indicating the presence of a number of active compounds in several fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction and all the tested column fractions had potent anti-lipoxygenase activity with IC50 values of ≤2.5 μg/ml which were lower than that of quercetin (positive control), indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The ethyl acetate fraction and several column fractions had powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 values of ≤5 μg/ml in the ABTS assay. Cytotoxicity values against Vero kidney cells ranged from LC50 = 40.0–989.3 μg/ml. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of a known bioactive compound, luteolin. S. singueana is a promising candidate for the development of poultry phytogenic feed additives.

2022 ◽  
Makaeva Ayna Maratovna ◽  
Sizova Elena Anatolevna ◽  
Atlanderova Ksenya Nikolaevna

Determining which forms of mineral feed additives can increase farm animal productivity is a key area of research. This study assessed the mineral composition of ruminal fluid and the effectiveness of calcium and phosphorus used by animals after the introduction of finely dispersed particles (FDP) of SiO2 (group I) and FeCo (group II) with a hydrodynamic radius of 109.6 ± 16.6 and 265 ± 25 nm, respectively. The deposition and use of calcium and phosphorus in the body of the experimental animals exceeded the control values. In group I, 30.8% more calcium was deposited (p ≥ 0.05), and in group II, the value was 30.3% (p ≥ 0.01). In the experimental groups, the calcium utilization rate was 27.3% higher in group I (p ≥ 0.05), and 28.2% higher in group II (p ≥ 0.01) compared to in the control. Phosphorus deposition was 34% higher (p ≤ 0.01) in experimental group I and 6% higher in experimental group II, compared with the control. Group I had a high utilization rate of phosphorus from the feed (with a 29% difference compared to the control). Comparison of the experimental groups revealed that the introduction of SiO2 FDP promoted an increase in the concentration of silicon, phosphorus, and calcium in the ruminal fluid. The introduction of FeCo FDP was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of iron and cobalt in the ruminal fluid. Thus, the use of feed additive in finely dispersed form in the diet of animals was accompanied by an increase in the use of calcium and phosphorus by the animal’s body, which is advisable when intensifying milk and meat productivity. The obtained results require further research. Keywords: finely dispersed forms of microelements, ruminants, calcium and phosphorus exchange, feeding

Akram Ismael Shehata ◽  
Mayada Alhoshy ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Jianfeng Wang ◽  
Ruoxuan Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 179-202
Marion Borey ◽  
Jordi Estelle ◽  
Claire Rogel-Gaillard ◽  

Living organisms continuously and intimately interact with commensal microbial communities referred to as microbiota and microbiomes. These complex ecosystems provide their hosts with vital services. The gut microbiome develops and diversifies after birth in pigs, as in all mammals. The diversification dynamics follows the host development early in life, reaches an initial level of richness and stabilization before 60 days of age, and continues to mature but at a much lower rate while ageing and adapting to environmental changes. There is a wide variation in microbiome composition at individual and group levels, due to a combination of many factors including host genetics, environmental factors, feed and feed additives, and farm practices. Although the gut microbiome displays region-specific composition along the digestive tract, with likely sequential, complementary biological functionalities, the fecal microbiome is often considered as a good surrogate and provides many of the associations identified with host phenotypes.

Bratashova Tatyana Sergeevna ◽  
Zakharkina Natalya Ivanovna ◽  
Shcherbakova Elena Nikolaevna ◽  
Safonov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

The study of indicators characterizing the processes associated with the acclimatization of birds in new biogeochemical conditions is of interest in connection with the prospects of the poultry industry in the Astrakhan Region, where the lack of important trace elements in soils and plant feeds: Se, I, Co, is observed. In the presented study, the main hematological and biochemical parameters of blood and mineral metabolism were determined in 2 groups of chickens of the Moscow black breed: imported to the Astrakhan Region from Moscow and kept in the Moscow Region. The analyses revealed strong differences (P<0.01) in indicators of two groups. The acclimatized birds were characterized by low levels of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as a higher content of white blood cells than in the second group. The chickens had impaired lipid and protein metabolism. A 71.3% increase in the level of total sugar most likely indicated a stress state of birds. Compared with the chickens in the Moscow Region, the level of calcium in their blood was 32.4% lower, phosphorus – 12.9%. To a large extent, a decrease in the levels of iodine and selenium – by 5.3 and 5.2 times, respectively, was observed. Thus, in the absence of external changes, acclimatized chickens are subject to a latent form of combined I- and Se-hypomicroelementosis. At the same time, a drop in egg productivity by 19% is the recorded fact. The necessity to adapt to the new climatic conditions of the Lower Volga region for birds, combined with a lack of important trace elements, can cause increased oxidative stress in acclimatized birds. Based on the results of the study, the use of feed additives that make up for the deficiency of necessary trace elements is recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 8-17
T. V. Sevastianova ◽  
B. V. Usha

The article provides an overview of the global situation related to the problem of antibiotic resistance, the search for rational ways to solve the problem and proposals for the imperative introduction of functional feed additives into the nutritional plan of animals in order to increase the resistance of the animal body and reduce the toxic load on the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems.

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