Chili Pepper
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Christian Escoto-Sandoval ◽  
Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo ◽  
Octavio Martínez

AbstractGene expression is the primary molecular phenotype and can be estimated in specific organs or tissues at particular times. Here we analyzed genome-wide inheritance of gene expression in fruits of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in reciprocal crosses between a domesticated and a wild accession, estimating this parameter during fruit development. We defined a general hierarchical schema to classify gene expression inheritance which can be employed for any quantitative trait. We found that inheritance of gene expression is affected by both, the time of fruit development as well as the direction of the cross, and propose that such variations could be common in many developmental processes. We conclude that classification of inheritance patterns is important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying gene expression regulation, and demonstrate that sets of genes with specific inheritance pattern at particular times of fruit development are enriched in different biological processes, molecular functions and cell components. All curated data and functions for analysis and visualization are publicly available as an R package.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12151
Maria Guadalupe Villa-Rivera ◽  
Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

Chili peppers represent a very important horticultural crop that is cultivated and commercialized worldwide. The ripening process makes the fruit palatable, desirable, and attractive, thus increasing its quality and nutritional value. This process includes visual changes, such as fruit coloration, flavor, aroma, and texture. Fruit ripening involves a sequence of physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that must be finely regulated at the transcriptional level. In this review, we integrate current knowledge about the transcription factors involved in the regulation of different stages of the chili pepper ripening process.

Arnuparb Prasarnsri ◽  
Chakkraphob Khonkhom ◽  
Laongdaw Techawinyutham ◽  
Kumpanat Sirivedin

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2316
Alaa I. B. Abou-Sreea ◽  
Clara R. Azzam ◽  
Sudad K. Al-Taweel ◽  
Ranya M. Abdel-Aziz ◽  
Hussein E. E. Belal ◽  

A biostimulant is any microorganism or substance used to enhance the efficiency of nutrition, tolerance to abiotic stress and/or quality traits of crops, depending on its contents from nutrients. Plant biostimulants like honey bee (HB) and silymarin (Sm) are a strategic trend for managing stressed crops by promoting nutritional and hormonal balance, regulating osmotic protectors, antioxidants, and genetic potential, reflecting plant growth and productivity. We applied diluted honey bee (HB) and silymarin-enriched honey bee (HB- Sm) as foliar nourishment to investigate their improving influences on growth, yield, nutritional and hormonal balance, various osmoprotectant levels, different components of antioxidant system, and genetic potential of chili pepper plants grown under NaCl-salinity stress (10 dS m‒1). HB significantly promoted the examined attributes and HB-Sm conferred optimal values, including growth, productivity, K+/Na+ ratio, capsaicin, and Sm contents. The antioxidative defense components were significantly better than those obtained with HB alone. Conversely, levels of oxidative stress markers (superoxide ions and hydrogen peroxide) and parameters related to membrane damage (malondialdehyde level, stability index, ionic leakage, Na+, and Cl− contents) were significantly reduced. HB-Sm significantly affects inactive gene expression, as a natural biostimulator silencing active gene expression. SCoT primers were used as proof in salt-treated or untreated chili pepper plants. There were 41 cDNA amplicons selected by SCoT-primers. Twenty of them were EcDNA amplicons (cDNA-amplicons that enhanced their genes by one or more treatments) representing 49% of all cDNA amplicons, whereas 7 amplicons for ScDNA (whose genes were silenced in one or more treatments) represented 17%, and 14 McDNA (monomorphic cDNA-amplicons with control) amplicons were represented by 34% from all cDNA amplicons. This indicates the high effect of BH-Sm treatments in expression enhancement of some inactive genes and their silenced effect for expression of some active genes, also confirming that cDNA-SCoT markers succeeded in detection of variable gene expression patterns between the untreated and treated plants. In conclusion, HB-Sm as a natural multi-biostimulator can attenuate salt stress effects in chili pepper plants by remodeling the antioxidant defense system and ameliorating plant productivity.

Mohamed Salem Zellama ◽  
Hassiba Chahdoura ◽  
Amira Zairi ◽  
Borhane Eddine Cherif Ziani ◽  
Mohamed Ali Boujbiha ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 7714-7719
S. Nuanmeesri ◽  
W. Sriurai

The goal of the current study is to develop a diagnosis model for chili pepper disease diagnosis by applying filter and wrapper feature selection methods as well as a Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN). The data used for developing the model include 1) types, 2) causative agents, 3) areas of infection, 4) growth stages of infection, 5) conditions, 6) symptoms, and 7) 14 types of chili pepper diseases. These datasets were applied to the 3 feature selection techniques, including information gain, gain ratio, and wrapper. After selecting the key features, the selected datasets were utilized to develop the diagnosis model towards the application of MLPNN. According to the model’s effectiveness evaluation results, estimated by 10-fold cross-validation, it can be seen that the diagnosis model developed by applying the wrapper method along with MLPNN provided the highest level of effectiveness, with an accuracy of 98.91%, precision of 98.92%, and recall of 98.89%. The findings showed that the developed model is applicable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Wandy Murti Prasetya ◽  
Toto Hadiarto ◽  
Wening Enggarini ◽  
Aqwin Polosoro ◽  
Suharsono Suharsono

<p>Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV) infection transmitted by silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci [Gennadius]) can decrease chili pepper yield up to 100%. At this moment, there is no chili pepper variety resistant to PepYLCV available. Genome editing approach through CRISPR/Cas9 is an effort to develop variety resistance to the viral infection. The purpose of this study was to obtain M2 lines developed by CRISPR/Cas9 system on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene for resistance to PepYLCV. A total of four M2 lines (C47-7, L84-2, L84-23, and L120-19) consisting of 60 chili plants were tested for their resistance to PepYLCV. PCR analysis was performed to detect the presence (infection) of the virus. The results showed that a total of 35 plants derived from the four lines were resistant to PepYLCV. They consisted of 7 plants from C47-7 line, 11 plants from L84-2 line, 9 plants from L84-23 line, and 8 plants from L120-19 line. PCR analysis confirmed that the resistant plants obtained from this study were negatively infected by the virus. Since not all tested plants were resistant to virus infection, the PCNA gene allele in these resistant lines were most likely heterozigotes. Sequencing of PCNA gene of the resistant lines is needed to confirm that the resistance phenotypes obtained was due to mutation of the gene. Therefore, further selection needs to be performed to obtain stable and PepYLCV-resistant lines.</p>

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