membrane damage
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2022 ◽  
Morwan M Osman ◽  
Jonthan K Shanahan ◽  
Frances Chu ◽  
Kevin Takaki ◽  
Malte Pinckert ◽  

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its close relative Mycobacterium marinum infect macrophages and induce the formation of granulomas, organized macrophage-rich immune aggregates. These mycobacterial pathogens can accelerate and co-opt granuloma formation for their benefit, using the specialized secretion system ESX-1, a key virulence determinant. ESX-1-mediated virulence is attributed to the damage it causes to the membranes of macrophage phagosomal compartments, within which the bacteria reside. This phagosomal damage, in turn, has been attributed to the membranolytic activity of ESAT-6, the major secreted substrate of ESX-1. However, mutations that perturb ESAT-6 membranolytic activity often result in global impairment of ESX-1 secretion. This has precluded an understanding of the causal and mechanistic relationships between ESAT-6 membranolysis and ESX-1-mediated virulence. Here, we identify two conserved residues in the unstructured C-terminal tail of ESAT-6 required for phagosomal damage, granuloma formation and virulence. Importantly, these ESAT-6 mutants have near-normal levels of secretion, far higher than the minimal threshold we establish is needed for ESX-1-mediated virulence early in infection. Unexpectedly, these loss-of-function ESAT-6 mutants retain the ability to lyse acidified liposomes. Thus, ESAT-6 virulence functions in vivo can be uncoupled from this in vitro surrogate assay. These uncoupling mutants highlight an enigmatic functional domain of ESAT-6 and provide key tools to investigate the mechanism of phagosomal damage and virulence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sarangapani Sreelatha ◽  
Nadimuthu Kumar ◽  
Tan Si Yin ◽  
Sarojam Rajani

The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) causes black rot disease in cruciferous crops, resulting in severe yield loss worldwide. The excessive use of chemical pesticides in agriculture to control diseases has raised significant concern about the impact on the environment and human health. Nanoparticles have recently gained significant attention in agriculture owing to their promising application in plant disease control, increasing soil fertility and nutrient availability. In the current study, we synthesized thymol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (TCNPs) and assessed their antibacterial activity against Xcc. The synthesis of TCNPs was confirmed by using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the functional groups, size, and shape of TCNPs, with sizes ranging from 54 to 250 nm, respectively. The antibacterial activity of TCNPs against Xcc was investigated in vitro by liquid broth, cell viability, and live dead staining assay, and all of them demonstrated the antibacterial activity of TCNPs. Furthermore, TCNPs were found to directly inhibit the growth of Xcc by suppressing the growth of biofilm formation and the production of exopolysaccharides and xanthomonadin. The ultrastructure studies revealed membrane damage in TCNP-treated Xcc cells, causing a release of intracellular contents. Headspace/gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed changes in the volatile profile of Xcc cells treated with TCNPs. Increased amounts of carbonyl components (mainly ketones) and production of new volatile metabolites were observed in Xcc cells incubated with TCNPs. Overall, this study reveals TCNPs as a promising antibacterial candidate against Xcc.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xueping Guo ◽  
Wenjing Mo ◽  
Dingyang Zhang ◽  
Yurong Wang ◽  
Fang Cao ◽  

In this study, a spherical silica nanoparticle was explored as a gatifloxacin carrier synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. It was found that there was no new chemical bond formation during the loading process between gatifloxacin and silica, which implies that the binding was driven by physical interaction. In addition, the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency could be improved by appropriately increasing nano-silica content in the loading process. Meanwhile, the release rate of gatifloxacin after loading nano-silica was also improved, suggesting the successful design of a controlled-release delivery composite. The silica nanocarrier could significantly improve the antibacterial performance of Escherichia coli by 2.1 times, which was higher than the pure gatifloxacin. The 24 h bacteriostatic rate was higher than that of a simple mixture of silica nanoparticles and gatifloxacin. Strong reactive oxygen species (ROS) in GAT-SiO2 NPs suggests that ROS might be associated with bactericidal activity. The synergy between the physicochemical effect and ROS production of this material is proposed as the mechanism of its antibacterial activity, which can also be confirmed by the cell membrane damage observed under electron microscopy and DNA damage experiments. Collectively, our finding indicates that nano-silica microspheres could serve as a promising carrier for the sustained release of gatifloxacin, thereby providing a new carrier design scheme for the improvement of the antibacterial effect.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hongyang Du ◽  
Benxue Chen ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Huaipan Liu ◽  
Ronald Kurtenbach

Polyamines are small positively charged molecules in plants and play important functions in many biological processes under various environmental stresses. One of the most confounding problems relating to polyamines (PAs) in stresses is the lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying their function(s). Furthermore, a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the sub-cellular level, especially in tree plants under drought stress. Therefore, in this research, by simulating natural drought stress with polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmotic stress, the relationship between the levels of conjugated polyamines and the activity of H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane was elucidated with the roots of two plum (Prunus salicina L.) cultivars, which were different in drought tolerance, as experimental materials. Furthermore, free PA levels and the activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and transglutaminase (TGase), which were closely associated with the levels of free and conjugated PAs, were also detected. Results showed that under osmotic stress, the increases of the levels of non-covalently conjugated (non-CC) spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), covalently conjugated (CC) putrescine (Put) and Spd in the plasma membrane of drought-tolerant Ganli No. 5 were more significant than those of drought-sensitive Suli No. 3, indicating that these conjugated PAs might be involved in the tolerance of plum seedlings to stress. Furthermore, the conjugated PAs were closely correlated with plum seedling growth, water retention capacity, plasma membrane damage degree, and hydrogen (H+)-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. To get more complementary pieces of evidence, we subjected plum seedlings to combined treatments of PEG and exogenous PA (Spd and Spm), and an inhibitor of SAMDC [methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone), (MGBG)] or TGase (o-phenanthroline). These results collectively suggested that non-CC Spd and Spm, CC Put and Spd in plasma membrane might function in enhancing the tolerance of plum seedlings to osmotic stress by stabilizing membrane structure and therefore elevating H+-ATPase activity.

2022 ◽  
Maren Rudolph ◽  
Alexander Carsten ◽  
Martin Aepfelbacher ◽  
Manuel Wolters

Yersinia enterocolitica employs a type three secretion system (T3SS) to translocate immunosuppressive effector proteins into host cells. To this end, the T3SS assembles a translocon/pore complex composed of the translocator proteins YopB and YopD in host cell membranes serving as an entry port for the effectors. The translocon is formed in a Yersinia -containing pre-phagosomal compartment that is connected to the extracellular space. As the phagosome matures, the translocon and the membrane damage it causes are recognized by the cell-autonomous immune system. We infected cells in the presence of fluorophore-labeled ALFA-tag-binding nanobodies with a Y. enterocolitica strain expressing YopD labeled with an ALFA-tag. Thereby we could record the integration of YopD into translocons and its intracellular fate in living host cells. YopD was integrated into translocons around 2 min after uptake of the bacteria into a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate enriched pre-phagosomal compartment and remained there for 27 min on average. Damaging of the phagosomal membrane as visualized with recruitment of GFP-tagged galectin-3 occurred in the mean around 14 min after translocon formation. Shortly after recruitment of galectin-3, guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP-1) was recruited to phagosomes, which was accompanied by a decrease in the signal intensity of translocons, suggesting their degradation. In sum, we were able for the first time to film the spatiotemporal dynamics of Yersinia T3SS translocon formation and degradation and its sensing by components of the cell-autonomous immune system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuxiang Zhang ◽  
Jianping Wei ◽  
Hong Guo ◽  
Chen Niu ◽  
Yahong Yuan ◽  

Cinnamic acid (CA) is a safe and effective antimicrobial agent. The objective of this study was to reveal the antibacterial mechanism of CA against a food-derived Pseudomonas fragi 38-8, from the aspects of bacterial growth kinetics, cell membrane homeostasis, cell microstructure, and transcription. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CA against P. fragi 38-8 was 0.25 mg/ml. CA retarded bacterial growth and induced a series of cell membrane changes. After CA treatment, cell membrane homeostasis was destroyed, which was evidenced by cell membrane depolarization, intracellular pH reduction, and intracellular ATPase activity decrease. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope (CLSM) realized the visualization of cell microstructure changes, showing cell death and morphological changes, such as cell rupture, shrinkage, and hollowness. RNA sequencing analysis further confirmed the effects of CA to the cell membrane, because of the significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to membrane. The results of the phenotype tests and RNA-seq both focused on cell membrane damage, which showed that CA exerted antibacterial effect mainly by acting on cell membrane.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 173-184
Ta Yuan Chang ◽  
Catherine C. Y. Chang ◽  
Taylor C. Harned ◽  
Adrianna L. De La Torre ◽  
Junghoon Lee ◽  

Cholesterol serves as an essential lipid molecule in various membrane organelles of mammalian cells. The metabolites of cholesterol also play important functions. Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), also named as sterol O-acyltransferase 1, is a membrane-bound enzyme residing at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters (CEs) for storage, and is expressed in all cells. CEs cannot partition in membranes; they can only coalesce as cytosolic lipid droplets. Excess CEs are found in the vulnerable region of the brains of patients with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and in cell and mouse models for AD. Reducing CE contents by genetic inactivation of ACAT1, or by pharmacological inhibition of ACAT is shown to reduce amyloidopathy and other hallmarks for AD. To account for the various beneficial actions of the ACAT1 blockade (A1B), a working hypothesis is proposed here: the increase in CE contents observed in the AD brain is caused by damages of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts that are known to occur in neurons affected by AD. These damages cause cholesterol to release from lipid rafts and move to the ER where it will be converted to CEs by ACAT1. In addition, the increase in CE contents may also be caused by overloading with cholesterol-rich substances, or through activation of ACAT1 gene expression by various pro-inflammatory agents. Both scenarios may occur in microglia of the chronically inflamed brain. A1B ameliorates AD by diverting the cholesterol pool destined for CE biosynthesis such that it can be utilized more efficiently to repair membrane damage in various organelles, and to exert regulatory actions more effectively to defend against AD. To test the validity of the A1B hypothesis in cell culture and in vivo, the current status of various anti-ACAT1 agents that could be further developed is briefly discussed.

Inorganics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Agustin Actis Dato ◽  
Luciana G. Naso ◽  
Marilin Rey ◽  
Pablo J. Gonzalez ◽  
Evelina G. Ferrer ◽  

Metal complexation in general improves the biological properties of ligands. We have previously measured the anticancer effects of the oxidovanadium(IV) cation with chrysin complex, VO(chrys)2. In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a new complex generated by the replacement of one chrysin ligand by phenanthroline (phen), VO(chrys)phenCl, to confer high planarity for DNA chain intercalation and more lipophilicity, giving rise to a better cellular uptake. In effect, the uptake of vanadium has been increased in the complex with phen and the cytotoxic effect of this complex proved higher in the human lung cancer A549 cell line, being involved in its mechanisms of action, the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease of the natural antioxidant compound glutathione (GSH) and the ratio GSH/GSSG (GSSG, oxidized GSH), and mitochondrial membrane damage. Cytotoxic activity studies using the non-tumorigenic HEK293 cell line showed that [VO(chrys)phenCl] exhibits selectivity action towards A549 cells after 24 h incubation. The interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by fluorometric determinations showed that the complex could be carried by the protein and that the binding of the complex to BSA occurs through H-bond and van der Waals interactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Karyne Rangel ◽  
Fellipe O. Cabral ◽  
Guilherme C. Lechuga ◽  
João P. R. S. Carvalho ◽  
Maria H. S. Villas-Bôas ◽  

(1) Background: Disinfection of medical devices designed for clinical use associated or not with the growing area of tissue engineering is an urgent need. However, traditional disinfection methods are not always suitable for some biomaterials, especially those sensitive to chemical, thermal, or radiation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the minimal concentration of ozone gas (O3) necessary to control and kill a set of sensitive or multi-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cell viability, membrane permeability, and the levels of reactive intracellular oxygen (ROS) species were also investigated; (2) Material and Methods: Four standard strains and a clinical MDR strain were exposed to low doses of ozone at different concentrations and times. Bacterial inactivation (cultivability, membrane damage) was investigated using colony counts, resazurin as a metabolic indicator, and propidium iodide (PI). A fluorescent probe (H2DCFDA) was used for the ROS analyses; (3) Results: No reduction in the count colony was detected after O3 exposure compared to the control group. However, the cell viability of E. coli (30%), P. aeruginosa (25%), and A. baumannii (15%) was reduced considerably. The bacterial membrane of all strains was not affected by O3 but presented a significant increase of ROS in E. coli (90 ± 14%), P. aeruginosa (62.5 ± 19%), and A. baumanni (52.6 ± 5%); (4) Conclusion: Low doses of ozone were able to interfere in the cell viability of most strains studied, and although it does not cause damage to the bacterial membrane, increased levels of reactive ROS are responsible for causing a detrimental effect in the lipids, proteins, and DNA metabolism.

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