conversion ratio
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Vega-Aguayo ◽  
C. Drake ◽  
V. Guzmán ◽  
A. Mardones ◽  
I. Valdebenito ◽  

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.

Bangkit Lutfiaji Syaefullah ◽  
Maria Herawati ◽  
Ni Putu Vidia Tiara Timur ◽  
Okti Widayati

Ayam kampung super merupakan salah satu ayam kampung yang ditingkatkan performannya dengan perkawinan silang. Akan tetapi, perkawinan silang tidak serta merta memperbaiki performan. Ada beberapa hal lain yang mempengaruhi performan yaitu lingkungan dan feed additive. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh Temperature Humidity Index dan pemberian enkapsulasi fitobiotik minyak buah merah terhadap konsumsi air minum dan performans ayam kampung super. Materi yang digunakan adalah alat ekstraksi, alat dan bahan enkapsulasi, buah merah, kandang individu dan ayam kampung super serta pakan starter. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yaitu Rancangan Acak Lengkap 5 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan dengan uji lanjut Duncan Multiple Range Test. Pemeliharaan dilakukan selama 56 hari dengan Temperature Humidity Index yaitu 24,44 - 35,21 oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa penambahan enkapsulasi buah merah tidak berpengaruh terhadap konsumsi air minum (P>0,05), konsumsi pakan (P>0,05), feed conversion ratio (P>0,05) dan berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertambahan bobot badan (P<0,05). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kondisi lingkungan dilokasi penelitian (Papua) relatif ekstrim dilihat dari selisih THI. Selain itu, berdasarkan uji lanjut bahwa penambahan enkapsulasi fitobiotik minyak buah merah terhadap penambahan bobot badan menghasilkan perlakuan terbaik pada penambahan 2,5% enkapsulasi minyak buah merah.

Axioms ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 18
Shih-Kuen Changchien ◽  
Kun-Li Wen

Analysis of power converter performance has tended to be engineering-oriented, focusing mainly on voltage stability, output power and efficiency improvement. However, there has been little discussion about the weight relations between these factors. In view of the previous inadequacy, this study employs regression, rough set and GM(1,N) to analyze the relations among the factors that affect the converter, with a symmetrical half-bridge power converter serving as an example. The four related affecting factors, including the current conversion ratio, voltage conversion ratio, power conversion ratio and output efficiency, are firstly analyzed and calculated. The respective relative relations between output efficiency and the other three factors are obtained. This research can be referred to by engineers in their design of symmetrical half-bridge power converters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
Joselito Bastos da Silva Júnior ◽  
Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal ◽  
Ines Andretta ◽  
Marcos Kipper da Silva ◽  
Luciano Hauschild ◽  

ABSTRACT: Performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs fed diets containing different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were evaluated through meta-analysis. The database was constructed using information from 24 papers, 113 treatments, and 2507 animals. Correlation and variance analyze were performed. The weight gain of the pigs showed a negative correlation (P < 0.01) with the dietary NDF content and with NDF consumption. The feed conversion ratio showed a positive correlation (P < 0.01) with the inclusion of ADF in the test ingredient and with the consumption of NDF and ADF. The backfat thickness showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with the NDF content in the diets. The analysis of variance showed that the performance of finishing pigs was not influenced (P > 0.05) by the inclusion of ingredients with high NDF content. Likewise, the inclusion of ingredients with high ADF content did not alter (P > 0.05) feed intake and feed conversion ratio. However, the use of ingredients with a high ADF content reduced (P < 0.05) by 4% the weight gain of the pigs. The use of ingredients with high concentrations of NDF and ADF negatively affect the weight gain and feed conversion of finishing pigs; however, the ADF-related fraction has a positive relationship with the reduction of the backfat thickness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012110
M Daud ◽  
M A Yaman ◽  
Zulfan ◽  
H Latif ◽  
D Erfiyan

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of Peking ducks fed with rations containing waste products of leubiem fish (Chanthidermis maculatus) and probiotic agents. The study was conducted experimentally using 96 Peking ducks, within an age range of about 1 to 8 weeks, and a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), which consisted of four treatment rations and four replications. The treatment rations used in this research included treatment R0, which was the basal diet, serving as the control ration, and also treatment R1, R2, and R3, which consisted of 10% concentration of leubiem fish skin, head, and bone, respectively, as well as 1% of a probiotic agent. The observed variables included the rate of feed consumption, body weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were then analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the use of leubiem fish components and probiotic agents in rations at 10% and 1%, respectively, had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the rate of feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and final body weight. However, there was no significant effect on the mortality of Peking ducks. Therefore, this study concluded that the use of rations containing leubiem fishbone and probiotic agents at 10% and 1%, respectively, were able to accelerate the growth performance of Peking ducks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  
A. Said ◽  
M. Israr ◽  
A. Rasool ◽  
F. Akbar ◽  

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 3237-3245
Henni Wijayanti Maharani ◽  
Qadar Hasani ◽  
Muhammad Ariful Aimma ◽  
Deny Sapto Chondro Utomo ◽  
Limin Santoso ◽  

Utilization of ex-sand pit lakes for aquaculture is difficult due to low water quality and high concentrations of iron (Fe). Phytoremediation using aquatic plants has been proven to be effective in reducing Fe in waters. This study aims to determine the growth, feed conversion efficiency and survival rate of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured with ex-sand mining water media with phytoremediation treatment. Phytoremediation treatment was carried out by Eichhornnia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, and Salvinia molesta. Fish culture experiments were carried out in plastic tarpaulin tanks for 40 days, with ad satiation feeding, three times a day using the commercial feed. The results showed that phytoremediation with aquatic plants had succeeded in reducing Fe to a level suitable for fish culture. Fish culture experiments showed an absolute length growth rate of 0.09-0.18 cm/day and an absolute weight growth rate of 0.11-0.16 g/day. The feed conversion ratio was 1.18-1.40 and the survival rate was 98.04-99.08%. The survival rate of tilapia is high, the feed conversion ratio is medium and growth is low. The high environmental temperature and the decrease in water quality due to the absence of water changes and aeration are suspected of causing the low growth of fish. Therefore, further research with water change and aeration experiments and the use of other species of fish is needed to follow up the results of this study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00012
Ririn Angriani ◽  
Widya Hermana ◽  
Muhammad Ridla

The research aimed to evaluate the effect of cassava leaf meal with enzymes supplementation in the feed on the performance of broiler. The research used factorial completly randomized design 2x3 on 240 Cobb-strain broilers. There were 6 treatments with 2 factors is used cassava leaf meal (CLM) and enzymes (non-starch polysaccharides and protease) with each dose 250 g/ton feed, i.e. P1: basal ration, P2: basal ration with enzymes, P3: ration with 1.5% CLM, P4: ration with 1.5% CLM and enzymes, P5: ration with 3.0% CLM, P6: ration with 3.0% CLM and enzymes. The variables analyzed were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. The data obtained were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and if the results indicated significantly different, then the post-hoc test conducted. The results showed that there was an interaction between CLM and enzymes on the feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). The addition enzymes can decrease feed conversion ratio (from 1.91 to 1.74) siginificantly (P < 0.05). Addition CLM to a level of 3.0% did not interfere with performance. Enzymes can offset the detrimental effect caused by the use cassava leaf meal in the feed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 36
Tetty Barunawati Siagian ◽  
Nabilah Khoirunnisa Nugraheni

One of the comestibles that have high nutritional value and are easy to obtain is chicken. The higher demand for chicken must be accompanied by an increase in production. It is important for the breeder of broiler chicken to choose high quality Day Old Chick (DOC) from the broiler breeder which also has high quality and productivity. The type of broiler breeder that is grown in PT. Karya Indah Pertiwi is Ross 308. Observations were made when the chickens were 18th to 21st weeks old in 6 henneries totaling about 10,000 chickens. The performance of broiler breeder observed were feed consumption, bodyweight gain, feed conversion ratio, and uniformity. Feed consumption of broiler breeder at 18th to 21st week was 659.4 g/chicken, 700,583 g/chicken, 742,116 g/chicken, 767.2 g/chicken. Bodyweight gain at 18th to 21st week was 143.51 g/chicken, 193.3 g/chicken, 63.43 g/chicken, 167.96 g/chicken. Feed conversion ratio at 18th to 21st week was 4.5, 3.6, 11.6, 4.5. The uniformity at 18th to 21st week was 77%, 81%, 81%, 81%. In conclusion, the value of feed consumption for broiler breeder at PT. Karya Indah Pertiwi was increasing every week. Bodyweight gain at 20th week was lower than 18th, 19th, and 21st week. The value of feed conversion ratio at 20th week was higher than at 18th, 19th, and 21st week. Chicken uniformity value at 18th week was not good it was at 77%, while at the 19th, 20th, and 21st week it was quite good at 81%.

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