broiler chickens
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
K. H. Swe ◽  
K. K. Lay ◽  
Y. L. Aung ◽  
Y. Aung ◽  
T. Thiri ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Tawni L. Crippen ◽  
Baneshwar Singh ◽  
Robin C. Anderson ◽  
Cynthia L. Sheffield

The facilities used to raise broiler chickens are often infested with litter beetles (lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus). These beetles have been studied for their carriage of pathogenic microbes; however, a more comprehensive microbiome study on these arthropods is lacking. This study investigated their microbial community in a longitudinal study throughout 2.5 years of poultry production and after the spent litter, containing the mealworms, was piled in pastureland for use as fertilizer. The mean most abundant phyla harbored by the beetles in house were the Proteobacteria (39.8%), then Firmicutes (30.8%), Actinobacteria (21.1%), Tenericutes (5.1%), and Bacteroidetes (1.6%). The community showed a modest decrease in Firmicutes and increase in Proteobacteria over successive flock rotations. The beetles were relocated within the spent litter to pastureland, where they were found at least 19 weeks later. Over time in the pastureland, their microbial profile underwent a large decrease in the percent of Firmicutes (20.5%). The lesser mealworm showed an ability to survive long-term in the open environment within the spent litter, where their microbiome should be further assessed to both reduce the risk of transferring harmful bacteria, as well as to enhance their contribution when the litter is used as a fertilizer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Shiyu Zhang ◽  
Zhiyi Tang ◽  
Changbing Zheng ◽  
Yinzhao Zhong ◽  
Jie Zheng ◽  

The present study is aimed to explore the effects of different dietary beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate (HMB) levels (0, 0.05%, 0.10%, or 0.15%) on liver lipid metabolism on Wenshi broiler chickens. Results showed that HMB reduced the liver weight as well as liver concentrations of triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (quadratically, p < 0.05), and the lowest values were observed in the 0.10% HMB group. Meanwhile, HMB supplementation significantly altered the expression levels of key genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver of broiler chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that HMB supplementation could greatly change the richness, diversity, and composition of the broiler gut microbiota, and the Bacteroidetes relative abundance at the phylum level and the Alistipes relative abundance at the genus level were affected (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis further suggested a strong association between Bacteroidetes relative abundance and lipid metabolism-related parameters (p < 0.05). Together, these data suggest that 0.10% HMB supplementation could inhibit hepatic fat deposition via regulating gut microbiota in broilers.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 169
Carlos A. Pantoja-Don Juan ◽  
Gabriela Gómez-Verduzco ◽  
Claudia C. Márquez-Mota ◽  
Guillermo Téllez-Isaías ◽  
Young M. Kwon ◽  

This study was conducted to evaluate the productive performance, intestinal health, and description of the cecum microbiota in broilers supplemented with β-mannanases (MNs) and bacteriophages (BPs). Six hundred one-day-old broilers were divided into four groups and fed one of the following diets: CON—corn–soybean meal + 10 ppm enramycin (ENR); MN: CON + 500 ppm MN; BP: CON + 500 ppm BP; MN + BP: BP + 500 ppm MN. The BP and MN factors showed similar performances to ENR. MN improved the concentration of IgA in the jejunum at 35 days of age. The morphometric index (IM) of the thymus increased by adding MN, while BP increased the liver and thymus IM. The histological analysis showed that BP and MN improved the intestinal morphology. MN + BP showed a tendency to decrease the abundance of Proteobacteria and increase the abundance of Bacteroidetes, indicating better microbiota function. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the combination of MN + BP has potential in poultry nutrition; however, we highly recommend further experiments to confirm this hypothesis.

Gustavo do Valle Polycarpo ◽  
Gabrieli Andressa de Lima ◽  
Thaís de Souza Ávida ◽  
Fábio Sampaio Rosas ◽  
Valquiria Cação Cruz-Polycarpo ◽  

Phytogenic additives have been studied intensively in broiler chickens’ production to substitute growth-promoting antibiotics. However, the comprehensive literature on this topic makes it difficult to understand overall results because there are a noticeable number of studies with conflicting conclusions. While several research studies have shown that phytogenic additives may increment broiler chicken’s performance, others make the opposite evident. This study aimed to organize and understand information through meta-analysis considering a great number of publications and the factors that may interfere in the results of phytogenic additives, evaluating whether phytogenic additives can be used as a performance-enhancing additive for broilers, comparing with the effectiveness of growth-promoting antibiotics. The main factor that interferes in the evaluation of phytogenic additives is the microbiological challenge. Phytogenic additives improved average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.001) and feed conversion (P < 0.001) regardless of microbiological challenge; however, they were worse compared to antibiotics under higher challenge (P < 0.020). A meta-regression of ADG in function of average daily feed intake confirmed that phytogenic additives increased the feed efficiency of broilers, but with less effectiveness than antibiotics. The blends of phytogenic additives increased the ADG in relation to the isolated use of only one phytogenic additive.

Yu. I. Kovaleva ◽  
R. Z. Abdulkhalikov ◽  
I. I. Ktsoeva ◽  
R. B. Temiraev ◽  
L. A. Vityuk ◽  

   In recent years, the use of adsorbent and antioxidant preparations in the formulation of feed with a high content of heavy metals is a promising direction in the industrial production of broiler meat. The study aims to study the consumer and hygienic properties of broiler meat when including adsorbent Ferrotsin and antioxidant Selenopyran in diets with high heavy metals and aflatoxin B 1 content. The authors experimentally established the necessity of containing the adsorbent Ferrotsin in the dose of 300 g/t feed and the antioxidant Selenopyran in the quantity of 300 g/t feed into the composition of mixed fodder with excessive concentration of heavy metals. This inclusion of adsorbents and antioxidants in the compound feed composition is necessary to increase the nutritional properties and protective properties of poultry meat. Group 3 broiler chickens significantly exceeded (P < 0.05) the control counterparts by 18.88 % by weight of half-gutted carcass and 18.26 % by weight of the gutted carcass. Also, broiler chickens of the 3rd experimental group exceeded the content of solids in the thoracic and thigh muscles by 1,40 and 0,60, and protein by 0,67 % and 0,67 %. Group 3 broilers significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded the control in protein quality index (PQI) of meat by 18.86 %. In broilers of experimental group 3, there was a reliable (P < 0.05) decrease in the level of zinc by 3.07, cadmium by 2.25 and lead by 3.24 times in the samples of breast muscle relative to the control counterparts. The highest final score was obtained by boiled white poultry meat of the 3rd experimental group. This sample of meat reliably (P < 0.05) exceeded the total sum of organoleptic parameters of the control sample by 0.81 points. In broilers of experimental group 3 in examples of breast, thigh muscles and meat homogenate, the level of selenium was significantly higher than in control due to the presence of this substance in Selenopyran.

Yu. I. Koval

   The authors present the results of a study of the effects of long-term (1.5 MPa) and short-term (5, 10 and 15 MPa) intoxication with heavy metals on the antioxidant status of broiler chickens. The authors found that the addition of increased concentrations of toxicants to the diet leads to their accumulation in poultry’s muscle, fat tissues, and skin. According to the study, lead content increases by 2.25 times, cadmium content increases by 6.5 times. Lipophilic compounds Tiofan and Tiofan M have the most pronounced detoxifying effect in chronic intoxication. Fantox 11-1 is the most pronounced detoxifying effect among hydrophilic compounds, which are inferior to lipophilic ones. Accumulation of heavy metals in the body led to a decrease in the antioxidant status of poultry. There was an acceleration of oxidative processes in long-term experimental toxicosis up to 3.10, up to 21.00 times in the short-term. The addition of 100 mg of lipophilic antioxidants per 1 kg of live weight to the diet with 7.5 mg of lead and 0.75 mg of cadmium per 1 kg of feed resulted in a decrease in the rate of oxidation reactions. The presence of lead and cadmium ions in the tissues of poultry caused a reduction of induction periods in the temperature-stabilized samples to 90 %. Enrichment of the diet with Thiophan and Fantox 11-1 increased this indicator up to 12.40 times. The hydrophilic antioxidant Fantox 11-1 dosage of 15 mg per 1 kg of live weight had a pronounced effect. Its introduction into the diet will correct the lack of endogenous antioxidants and increase the body’s antioxidant status under the influence of heavy metals.

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