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2022 ◽  
Vol 1864 (1) ◽  
pp. 183749
Alain Bolaño Alvarez ◽  
Pablo E.A. Rodríguez ◽  
Gerardo D. Fidelio

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Elisabete Lima ◽  
Jorge Medeiros

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), increases continuously demanding the urgent development of anti-Alzheimer’s agents. Marine organisms (MO) have to create their own defenses due to the adverse environment where they live and so synthesize several classes of compounds, such as akaloids, to defend themselves. Therefore, the identification of marine natural products with neuroprotective effects is a necessity. Being that AD is not only a genetic but also an environmental complex disease, a treatment for AD remains to discover. As the major clinical indications (CI) of AD are extracellular plaques formed by β-amyloid (Aβ) protein, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyper phosphorylated τ-protein, uncommon inflammatory response and neuron apoptosis and death caused by oxidative stress, alkaloids that may decrease CI, might be used against AD. Most of the alkalolids with those properties are derivatives of the amino acid tryptophan mainly with a planar indole scaffold. Certainly, alkaloids targeting more than one CI, multitarget-directed ligands (MTDL), have the potential to become a lead in AD treatment. Alkaloids to have a maximum of activity against CI, should be planar and contain halogens and amine quaternization.

2022 ◽  
Dmitry V Zaretsky ◽  
Maria V Zaretskaia ◽  
Yaroslav I Molkov

Amyloid plaques are the main signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Beta-amyloid (Aβ) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-Aβ) and the density of amyloid depositions have a strong negative correlation. However, AD patients have lower CSF-Aβ levels compared to cognitively normal people even after accounting for this correlation. The goal of this study was to infer variations of parameters in Aβ metabolism of AD patients that underlie this difference using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort. We found that AD patients had dramatically increased rates of cellular amyloid uptake compared to individuals with normal cognition (NC). A group with late-onset mild cognitive impairment (LMCI) also exhibited stronger amyloid uptake, however this was less pronounced than in the AD group. Estimated parameters in the early-onset MCI group did not differ significantly from those in the NC group. Aβ cytotoxicity depends on both the amount of peptide internalized by cells and its intracellular degradation into toxic products. Based on our results, we speculate that AD and LMCI are associated with increased cellular amyloid uptake which leads to faster disease progression, whereas the early-onset MCI may be mediated by the increased production of toxic amyloid metabolites.

eFood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Min Wang ◽  
Congcong Gong ◽  
William Amakye ◽  
Jiaoyan Ren

Inhibiting β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation is of significance in finding potential candidates for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutrition is important for improving cognition and reducing AD risk. Walnut has been widely used as a functional food for brain health; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular level alteration in Arctic mutant Aβ42 induced aggregation cell model by RNA-seq and iTRAQ approaches after walnut-derived peptides Pro-Pro-Lys-Asn-Trp (PW5) and Trp-Pro-Pro-Lys-Asn (WN5) interventions. PW5 or WN5 could significantly decrease abnormal Aβ42 aggregates. However, resultant alterations in transcriptome (substantially unchanged) were inconsistent with proteomic data (marked change). Proteomic analysis revealed 184 and 194 differentially expressed proteins unique to PW5 and WN5 treatment, respectively, for inhibiting Aβ42 protein production or increasing protein degradation via the mismatch repair pathways. Our study provides new insights into the effectiveness of food-derived peptides for anti-Aβ42 aggregation in AD.

The Analyst ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kawin Khachornsakkul ◽  
Anongnat Tiangtrong ◽  
Araya Suwannasom ◽  
Wuttichai Sangkharoek ◽  
Opor Jamjumrus ◽  

We report on the first development of a simple distance-based β-amyloid (Aβ) protein quantification using paper-based devices (dPADs) to screen for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to subsequently follow up on...

2021 ◽  
Shu-qin Cao ◽  
Yahyah Aman ◽  
Evandro Fei Fang ◽  
Tewin Tencomnao

Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common and devastating disease characterized by pathological aggregations of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques extracellularly, and Tau tangles intracellularly. While our understandings of the aetiologies of AD have greatly expanded over the decades, there is no drug available to stop disease progression. Here, we demonstrate the potential of P. edulis pericarp extract in protecting against Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity in mammalian cells and Caenorhabditis elegans models of AD. We show P. edulis pericarp protects against memory deficit, neuronal loss, and promotes longevity in the Aβ model of AD via stimulation of mitophagy, a selective cellular clearance of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria. P. edulis pericarp also restores memory and increases neuronal resilience in a C. elegans Tau model of AD. While defective mitophagy-induced accumulation of damaged mitochondria contributes to AD progression, P. edulis pericarp improves mitochondrial homeostasis through NIX/DCT1-dependent mitophagy and SOD3-dependent mitochondrial resilience, both via increased nuclear translocation of the upstream transcriptional regulator FOXO3/DAF-16. Further studies to identify active molecules in P. edulis pericarp that could maintain neuronal mitochondrial homeostasis may enable the development of potential drug candidates for AD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 56
Sandhya T. Chakravarthi ◽  
Suresh G. Joshi

As one of the leading causes of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a condition in which individuals experience progressive cognitive decline. Although it is known that beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of tau fibrils are hallmark characteristics of AD, the exact causes of these pathologies are still mostly unknown. Evidence that infectious diseases may cause AD pathology has been accumulating for decades. The association between microbial pathogens and AD is widely studied, and there are noticeable correlations between some bacterial species and AD pathologies, especially spirochetes and some of the oral microbes. Borrelia burgdorferi has been seen to correlate with Aβ plaques and NFTs in infected cells. Because of the evidence of spirochetes in AD patients, Treponema pallidum and other oral treponemes are speculated to be a potential cause of AD. T. pallidum has been seen to form aggregates in the brain when the disease disseminates to the brain that closely resemble the Aβ plaques of AD patients. This review examines the evidence as to whether pathogens could be the cause of AD and its pathology. It offers novel speculations that treponemes may be able to induce or correlate with Alzheimer’s disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Giulia Sierri ◽  
Roberta Dal Magro ◽  
Barbara Vergani ◽  
Biagio Eugenio Leone ◽  
Beatrice Formicola ◽  

The cerebral synthesis of cholesterol is mainly handled by astrocytes, which are also responsible for apoproteins’ synthesis and lipoproteins’ assembly required for the cholesterol transport in the brain parenchyma. In Alzheimer disease (AD), these processes are impaired, likely because of the astrogliosis, a process characterized by morphological and functional changes in astrocytes. Several ATP-binding cassette transporters expressed by brain cells are involved in the formation of nascent discoidal lipoproteins, but the effect of beta-amyloid (Aβ) assemblies on this process is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated how of Aβ1-42-induced astrogliosis affects the metabolism of cholesterol in vitro. We detected an impairment in the cholesterol efflux of reactive astrocytes attributable to reduced levels of ABCA1 transporters that could explain the decreased lipoproteins’ levels detected in AD patients. To approach this issue, we designed biomimetic HDLs and evaluated their performance as cholesterol acceptors. The results demonstrated the ability of apoA-I nanodiscs to cross the blood–brain barrier in vitro and to promote the cholesterol efflux from astrocytes, making them suitable as a potential supportive treatment for AD to compensate the depletion of cerebral HDLs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Likui Lu ◽  
Xi Yu ◽  
Yongle Cai ◽  
Miao Sun ◽  
Hao Yang

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by cognitive impairment, abnormal behavior, and social deficits, which is intimately linked with excessive β-amyloid (Aβ) protein deposition along with many other misfolded proteins, neurofibrillary tangles formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein aggregates, and mitochondrial damage in neurons, leading to neuron loss. Currently, research on the pathological mechanism of AD has been elucidated for decades, still no effective treatment for this complex disease was developed, and the existing therapeutic strategies are extremely erratic, thereby leading to irreversible and progressive cognitive decline in AD patients. Due to gradually mental dyscapacitating of AD patients, AD not only brings serious physical and psychological suffering to patients themselves, but also imposes huge economic burdens on family and society. Accordingly, it is very imperative to recapitulate the progress of gene editing-based precision medicine in the emerging fields. In this review, we will mainly focus on the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technique in the fields of AD research and gene therapy, and summarize the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in the aspects of AD model construction, screening of pathogenic genes, and target therapy. Finally, the development of delivery systems, which is a major challenge that hinders the clinical application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology will also be discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5986
Thomas Gabriel Schreiner ◽  
Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu

Despite the significant impact of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at individual and socioeconomic levels and the numerous research studies carried out on this topic over the last decades, the treatments available in daily clinical practice remain less than satisfactory. Among the accepted etiopathogenic hypotheses, the amyloidogenic pathway theory, although intensively studied and even sometimes controversial, is still providing relevant theoretical elements for understanding the etiology of AD and for the further development of possible therapeutic tools. In this sense, this review aims to offer new insights related to beta amyloid (Aβ), an essential biomarker in AD. First the structure and function of Aβ in normal and pathological conditions are presented in detail, followed by a discussion on the dynamics of Aβ at the level of different biological compartments. There is focus on Aβ elimination modalities at central nervous system (CNS) level, and clearance via the blood–brain barrier seems to play a crucial/dominant role. Finally, different theoretical and already-applied therapeutic approaches for CNS Aβ elimination are presented, including the recent “peripheral sink therapeutic strategy” and “cerebrospinal fluid sinks therapeutic strategy”. These data outline the need for a multidisciplinary approach designed to deliver a solution to stimulate Aβ clearance in more direct ways, including from the cerebrospinal fluid level.

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