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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Madeeha Rehan ◽  
Attika Khalid ◽  
Fariha Nasreen

Background & Objective: Undiagnosed malarial infectionis associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Laboratory investigations leading to rapid, accurate and timely diagnosis of malaria is still a challenge. This study was done to assess the utility of abnormal White blood cell differential fluorescence (WDF) scattergram for diagnosis of malaria. Our aim was to study the utility of WDF scattergram for early detection of malarial parasite. Methods: All EDTA anti-coagulated blood samples received in laboratory during a period from Dec 2019 to May 2020 were analyzed on anautomated hematology analyzer, Sysmex XN 1000. All abnormal WDF scattergrams pertaining to plasmodium specie were critically evaluated and recorded. Review of Leishman-stained peripheral smears as well as immune-chromatographic assay by rapid test devices (RTD) was done. Accordingly, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for detection of malaria by abnormal scattergram were calculated. Results: Out of total 1, 26,000of samples analyzed, abnormal WDF scattergrams were detected in 96 cases. Amongst these, 95.8% (92) were positive for MP on Leishman-stained peripheral smear as well as on ICT with a p-value of 0.05. WDF scattergram abnormalities typical of malaria showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 93.26%. Positive predictive value of 95.8% whereas negative predictive value of 99.9% was detected. Significant findings of hemolysis, platelet clumps, nucleated RBCS (NRBCs) and RBC agglutination were noted in cases (n=4) with abnormal WDF scattergram negative for malaria on peripheral smear. Conclusion: Interpretation of abnormal WDF scattergram not only increases the early detection rate for malarial parasite but isa strong indicator for presence of hemolysis, RBC agglutination, platelet clumps and leucoerythroblastic blood picture as well. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4702 How to cite this:Rehan M, Khalid A, Nasreen F. White blood cell differential fluorescence abnormal scattergram: A useful indicator for early detection of malarial parasite. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4702 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiao Wang ◽  
Lili Feng ◽  
Haohai Zhang ◽  
Juehua Gao ◽  
Changchuin Mao ◽  
...  

Abstract While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were highly efficacious against severe illness and hospitalization, they seem to be less effective in preventing infection months after vaccination, especially with the Delta variant. Breakthrough infections might be due to higher infectivity of the variants, relaxed protective measures by the general public in “COVID-19 fatigue”, and/or waning immunity post-vaccination. Determining the neutralizing antibody levels in a longitudinal manner may address this issue, but technical complexity of classic assays precludes easy detection and quick answers. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay NeutraXpress™ (commercial name of the test kit by Antagen Diagnostics, Inc.), and tested fingertip blood samples of subjects receiving either Moderna or Pfizer vaccines at various time points. With this device, we confirmed the reported clinical findings that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies quickly wane after 3–6 months. Thus, using rapid tests to monitor neutralizing antibody status could help identify individuals at risk, prevent breakthrough infections and guide social behavior to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Statement of Significance. Mounting evidence suggests that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2 wane in 3–6 months. Quick identification of fully vaccinated persons with high risk of breakthrough infections is key to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The described LFIA device having a control/sample dual-lane design serves this purpose with successful field-test data.


BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jane P. Daniels ◽  
Emily Dixon ◽  
Alicia Gill ◽  
Jon Bishop ◽  
Mark Wilks ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Mother-to-baby transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the main cause of early-onset infection. We evaluated whether, in women with clinical risk factors for early neonatal infection, the use of point-of-care rapid intrapartum test to detect maternal GBS colonisation reduces maternal antibiotic exposure compared with usual care, where antibiotics are administered due to those risk factors. We assessed the accuracy of the rapid test in diagnosing maternal GBS colonisation, against the reference standard of selective enrichment culture. Methods We undertook a parallel-group cluster randomised trial, with nested test accuracy study and microbiological sub-study. UK maternity units were randomised to a strategy of rapid test (GeneXpert GBS system, Cepheid) or usual care. Within units assigned to rapid testing, vaginal-rectal swabs were taken from women with risk factors for vertical GBS transmission in established term labour. The trial primary outcome was the proportion of women receiving intrapartum antibiotics to prevent neonatal early-onset GBS infection. The accuracy of the rapid test was compared against the standard of selective enrichment culture in diagnosing maternal GBS colonisation. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined in paired maternal and infant samples. Results Twenty-two maternity units were randomised and 20 were recruited. A total of 722 mothers (749 babies) participated in rapid test units; 906 mothers (951 babies) were in usual care units. There was no evidence of a difference in the rates of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (relative risk 1.16, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.64) between the rapid test (41%, 297/716) and usual care (36%, 328/906) units. No serious adverse events were reported. The sensitivity and specificity measures of the rapid test were 86% (95% CI 81 to 91%) and 89% (95% CI 85 to 92%), respectively. Babies born to mothers who carried antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli were more likely to be colonised with antibiotic-resistant strains than those born to mothers with antibiotic-susceptible E. coli. Conclusion The use of intrapartum rapid test to diagnose maternal GBS colonisation did not reduce the rates of antibiotics administered for preventing neonatal early-onset GBS infection than usual care, although with considerable uncertainty. The accuracy of the rapid test is within acceptable limits. Trial registration ISRCTN74746075. Prospectively registered on 16 April 2015


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Hussein Mukasa Kafeero ◽  
Dorothy Ndagire ◽  
Ponsiano Ocama ◽  
Charles Drago Kato ◽  
Eddie Wampande ◽  
...  

Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver-related diseases. In Uganda, there is a regional disparity in the HBV burden. Our study was aimed at establishing the circulating genotypes in a low and a high endemic region to give plausible explanations for the differences in regional burden and guide the future management of the disease. Methods. A total of 200 HBsAg-seropositive subjects were recruited into the study by convenience sampling. The HBsAg Rapid Test Strip (Healgen Scientific Limited Liability Company, Houston, TX77047- USA) was used to screen for HBsAg while the Roche machine (Roche, Basel Switzerland/Abbot Technologies (USA)) was used to determine the viral load. The Chemistry Analyzer B120 (Mindray, China) was used for chemistry analysis. For HBV genotyping, total DNA was extracted from whole blood using the QIAamp® DNA extraction kit. Nested PCR amplification was performed using Platinum Taq DNA Polymerase (Invitrogen Corporation, USA) to amplify the 400 bp HBV polymerase gene. Purification of nested PCR products was performed using Purelink PCR product purification kit (Life Technologies, USA). Automated DNA sequencing was performed using BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit on 3130 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA). The NCBI HBV genotyping tool (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/genotyping/formpage.cgi) was used for determination of genotype for each HBV sequence. Pearson’s chi-square, multinomial logistic regression, and Mann–Whitney U tests were used for the analysis. All the analyses were done using SPSS version 26.0 and MedCalc software version 19.1.3 at 95% CI. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Majority of our study subjects were female (64.5%), youth (51.0%), and married (62.0%). Overall, genotype A was the most prevalent (46%). Genotype D and the recombinant genotype D/E were proportionately more distributed in the high endemic (38.2%) and low endemic (36.5%) regions, respectively. Genotype D was significantly more prevalent in the high endemic region and among the elderly ( p < 0.05 ). Genotype D was significantly associated with elevated viral load and direct bilirubin ( p < 0.05 ). The recombinant genotype D/E was significantly associated with elevated viral load ( p < 0.05 ). Similarly, genotype A was significantly associated with elevated AST and GGT, lowered viral load, and normal direct bilirubin levels ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. There is disproportionate distribution of genotypes A and D and the recombinant genotype D/E in the low and high endemic regions of Uganda. This probably could explain the differences in endemicity of HBV in our country signifying the need for regional specific HBV management and control strategies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Abbas Hoballah ◽  
Rana El Haidari ◽  
Ghina Siblany ◽  
Fadi Abdel Sater ◽  
Samir Mansour ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Lebanon, a small country in the Middle East, remains severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Seroprevalence surveys of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies provide accurate estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hence evaluate the extent of the pandemic. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Lebanon and to compare the estimated cumulative number of COVID-19 cases with the officially registered number of laboratory-confirmed cases up to January 15, 2021. Methods A nationwide population-based serosurvey study was conducted in Lebanon between December 7, 2020, and January 15, 2021, before the initiation of the national vaccination program. The nCOVID-19 IgG & IgM point-of-care (POCT) rapid test was used to detect the presence of anti-SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the blood. Seroprevalence was estimated after weighting for sex, age, and area of residence and adjusting for the test performance. Results Of the 2058 participants, 329 were positive for IgG SARS-COV-2, resulting in a crude seroprevalence of 16.0% (95% CI 14.4–17.6). The weighed seroprevalence was 15.9% (95% CI of 14.4 and 17.4). After adjusting for test performance, the population weight-adjusted seroprevalence was 18.5% (95% CI 16.8–20.2). This estimate implies that 895,770 individuals of the general population were previously infected by COVID-19 up to January 15, 2021 in Lebanon. The overall estimated number of subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was three times higher than the officially reported cumulative number of confirmed cases. Seroprevalence was similar across age groups and sexes (p-value > 0.05). However, significant differences were revealed across governorates. Conclusions Our results suggest that the Lebanese population is still susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and far from achieving herd immunity. These findings represent an important contribution to the surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic in Lebanon and to the understanding of how this virus spreads. Continued surveillance for COVID-19 cases and maintaining effective preventive measures are recommended to control the epidemic spread in conjunction with a national vaccination campaign to achieve the desired level of herd immunity against COVID-19.


Author(s):  
Michèle Birrer ◽  
Martin Perrig ◽  
Fabienne Hobi ◽  
Christina Gfeller ◽  
Andrew Atkinson ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The guideline-driven and widely implemented single room isolation strategy for respiratory viral infections (RVI) such as influenza or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can lead to a shortage of available hospital beds. We discuss our experience with the introduction of droplet precautions on-site (DroPS) as a possible alternative. Methods During the 2018/19 influenza season we introduced DroPS on several wards of a single tertiary care center, while other wards maintained the traditional single room isolation strategy. On a daily basis, we evaluated patients for the development of respiratory symptoms and screened those with a clinical diagnosis of hospital-acquired respiratory viral infection (HARVI) for influenza/RSV by molecular rapid test. If negative, it was followed by a multiplex respiratory virus PCR. We report the concept of DroPS, the feasibility of the strategy and the rate of microbiologically confirmed HARVI with influenza or RSV infection on the DroPS wards compared to wards using the traditional single room isolation strategy. Results We evaluated all hospitalised patients at risk for a HARVI, 741 (72%) on the DroPS wards and 293 (28%) on the regular wards. The hospital-acquired infection rate with influenza or RSV was 2/741 (0.3%; 1× influenza A, 1× RSV) on the DroPS wards and 2/293 (0.7%; 2× influenza A) on the regular wards. Conclusions Droplet precautions on-site (DroPS) may be a simple and potentially resource-saving alternative to the standard single room isolation strategy for respiratory viral infections. Further studies in a larger clinical context are needed to document its safety.


Author(s):  
Jade Daigle ◽  
Kathleen Racher ◽  
Justin Hazenberg ◽  
Allan Yeoman ◽  
Heather Hannah ◽  
...  

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, wastewater surveillance has been used to monitor trends in SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in the community. A major challenge in establishing wastewater surveillance programs, especially in remote areas, is the need for a well-equipped laboratory for sample analysis. Currently, no options exist for rapid, sensitive, mobile, and easy-to-use wastewater tests for SARS-CoV-2. The performance of the GeneXpert System, which offers cartridge-based, rapid molecular clinical testing for SARS-CoV-2 in a portable platform, was evaluated using wastewater as the input. The GeneXpert demonstrated a SARS-CoV-2 limit of detection in wastewater below 32 copies/mL with a sample processing time of less than an hour. Using wastewater samples collected from multiple sites across Canada during February and March 2021, a high overall agreement (97.8%) was observed between the GeneXpert assay and laboratory-developed tests regarding the presence or absence of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, with the use of centrifugal filters the detection threshold of the GeneXpert system was improved to <10 copies/mL in wastewater. Finally, to support on-site wastewater surveillance, GeneXpert testing was implemented in Yellowknife, a remote community in Northern Canada where its use successfully alerted public health authorities to undetected transmission of COVID-19. The identification of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater triggered clinical testing of recent travelers and identification of new COVID-19 cases/clusters. Taken together, these results suggest the GeneXpert is a viable option for surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater in locations that do not have access to established testing laboratories. Importance: Wastewater-based surveillance is a powerful tool that provides an unbiased measure of COVID-19 prevalence in a community. This work describes a sensitive wastewater rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 based on a widely distributed technology, the GeneXpert. The advantages of an easy-to-use wastewater test for SARS-CoV-2 are clear – it supports surveillance in remote communities, improves access to testing, and provides faster results allowing for an immediate public health response. The application of wastewater rapid testing in a remote community facilitated the detection of a COVID-19 cluster and triggered public health action, clearly demonstrating the utility of this technology. Wastewater surveillance will become increasingly important in the post-vaccination pandemic landscape as individuals with asymptomatic/mild infections continue transmitting SARS-CoV-2 but are unlikely to be tested.


Rev Rene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
pp. e71427
Author(s):  
Reângela Cíntia Rodrigues de Oliveira Lima ◽  
Amanda Delmondes de Brito ◽  
Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão ◽  
Ivana Cristina Vieira de Lima Maia

Objective: to understand Family Health Strategy nurses’ perceptions on counseling and rapid testing for sexually transmitted infections. Methods: this is a qualitative study, with data triangulation. Data collection was conducted through a semi-structured interview with seven nurses from Family Health Strategy. For systematization and data processing, content analysis was adopted in the thematic modality. Results: after analysis, four categories emerged: Rapid test training; Counseling conduction; Ease in rapid testing offer; and Challenges offering rapid testing. Conclusion: nurses’ perceptions were related to difficulties in the face of pre and posttest counseling, requiring improvement, permanent education and training for professional preparation, and the logistics of inputs and materials, in addition to changes in the physical structure of the units.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Author(s):  
Corina Pascu ◽  
Viorel Herman ◽  
Ionica Iancu ◽  
Luminita Costinar

The present study aimed to determine the bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the western part of Romania. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed based on local inflammation in the udder, changes in milk, and when present, generalized symptoms. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using a rapid test—the California Mastitis Test. The identification of bacterial strains was performed based on biochemical profiles using API system tests (API 20 E, API Staph, API 20 Strep, API Coryne, API 20 NE (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The prevalent isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (50/116; 43.19%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (26/116; 22.41%), E. coli (16/116; 13.79%), Corynebacterium spp. (9/116; 7.75%), Enterococcus spp. (10/116; 8.62%), and Enterobacter spp. (5/116; 4.31%). Phenotype antimicrobial resistance profiling was performed used the disc diffusion method. Generally, Gram-positive bacteria showed low susceptibility to most of the antimicrobials tested, except cephalothin. Susceptibilities to penicillins and quinolones were fairly high in Gram-negative bacteria, whereas resistance was observed to macrolides, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. The highest number of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), the resistance pathotypes identified including the most frequently antimicrobials used in cow mastitis treatment in Romania.


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