zeolitic imidazolate frameworks
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Mahboobeh Shahsavari ◽  
Peyman Mohammadzadeh Jahani ◽  
Iran Sheikhshoaie ◽  
Somayeh Tajik ◽  
Abbas Aghaei Afshar ◽  

Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a class of hybrid networks of supramolecular solid materials comprising a large number of inorganic and organic linkers, all bound to metal ions in a well-organized fashion. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a sub-group of MOFs with imidazole as an organic linker to metals; it is rich in carbon, nitrogen, and transition metals. ZIFs combine the classical zeolite characteristics of thermal and chemical stability with pore-size tunability and the rich topological diversity of MOFs. Due to the energy crisis and the existence of organic solvents that lead to environmental hazards, considerable research efforts have been devoted to devising clean and sustainable synthesis routes for ZIFs to reduce the environmental impact of their preparation. Green chemistry is the key to sustainable development, as it will lead to new solutions to existing problems. Moreover, it will present opportunities for new processes and products and, at its heart, is scientific and technological innovation. The green chemistry approach seeks to redesign the materials that make up the basis of our society and our economy, including the materials that generate, store, and transport our energy, in ways that are benign for humans and the environment and that possess intrinsic sustainability. This study covers the principles of green chemistry as used in designing strategies for synthesizing greener, less toxic ZIFs the consume less energy to produce. First, the necessity of green methods in today’s society, their replacement of the usual non-green methods and their benefits are discussed; then, various methods for the green synthesis of ZIF compounds, such as hydrothermally, ionothermally, and by the electrospray technique, are considered. These methods use the least harmful and toxic substances, especially concerning organic solvents, and are also more economical. When a compound is synthesized by a green method, a question arises as to whether these compounds can replace the same compounds as synthesized by non-green methods. For example, is the thermal stability of these compounds (which is one of the most important features of ZIFs) preserved? Therefore, after studying the methods of identifying these compounds, in the last part, there is an in-depth discussion on the various applications of these green-synthesized compounds.

Xinyue Hou ◽  
Jianxiang Shi ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Zhigang Wang ◽  
Sen Zhang ◽  

Significant advances have been made in recent years for the utilization of natural enzymes with antioxidant properties to treat acute kidney injury (AKI). However, these enzymes have been of limited clinical utility because of their limited cellular uptake, poor pharmacokinetic properties, and suboptimal stability. We employed a novel biomimetic mineralization approach to encapsulate catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8). Next, this [email protected]@ZIF-8 complex was anchored with MPEG2000-COOH to yield an [email protected]@ZIF-8 (PSCZ) composite. The composite was then used as a stable tool with antioxidant properties for the integrated cascade-based treatment of AKI, remarkably improved intracellular enzyme delivery. This dual-enzyme-embedded metal-organic framework could effectively scavenge reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the ZIF-8-based “armor plating” represents an effective means of shielding enzymes with improved therapeutic utility to guide the precision medicine-based treatment of AKI.

Jorge Becerra ◽  
Vishnu Nair Gopalakrishnan ◽  
Toan-Anh Quach ◽  
Trong-On Do

Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are promising photocatalysts for CO2 reduction due to their proper energy band structure and crystalline properties. However, CO2 conversion is still low due to the serious...

2022 ◽  
Javier Lopez-Cabrelles ◽  
Eugenia Miguel-Casañ ◽  
Maria Esteve-Rochina ◽  
Eduardo Andres-Garcia ◽  
Inigo Vitorica-Yrzebal ◽  

Different mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) with sodalite topology, i.e. isoreticular to ZIF-8, unachievable by conventional synthetic routes, have been prepared using a solvent-free methodology. In particular, the versatility of...

Xianlong Du ◽  
Mengna Xie ◽  
Na Gao ◽  
Guoping Xiao ◽  
Min Ge ◽  

Applying non-precious metal catalysts to electrocatalytic CO2 reduction (CO2RR) to CO efficiently, rather than gold-based nanomaterials, is of practical significance. Here, we adopt zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) to assist the...

2021 ◽  
Michael Hafner ◽  
Laura Villanova ◽  
Francesco Carraro

The performance of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) as protective hosts for proteins in drug delivery or biocatalysis strongly depends on the type of crystalline phases used for the encapsulation of the biomacromolecule ([email protected]). Therefore, quantifying the different crystal phases, and the amount of amorphous content of ZIFs is becoming increasingly important for a better understanding of the structure-property relationship. Typically, crystalline ZIF phases are qualitatively identified from diffraction patterns. However, accurate phase examinations are time-consuming and require specialized expertise. Here, we propose a calibration procedure (internal standard ZrO2) for the rapid and quantitative analysis of crystalline and amorphous ZIF phases from diffraction patterns. We integrated the procedure into a user-friendly web application, named ZIF Phase Analysis, which facilitates ZIF-based data analysis. As a result, it is now possible to quantify i) the relative amount of various common crystal phases (sodalite, diamondoid, ZIF-CO3-1, ZIF-EC-1, U12 and ZIF-L) in [email protected] biocomposites based on Zn2+ and 2-methylimidazole (HmlM) and ii) the crystalline-to-amorphous ratio. This new analysis tool will advance the research on ZIF biocomposites for drug delivery and biocatalysis.

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