Imprecision is inherent in any decidable (sound) approximation of undecidable program properties. In abstract interpretation this corresponds to the release of false alarms, e.g., when it is used for program analysis and program verification. As all alarming systems, a program analysis tool is credible when few false alarms are reported. As a consequence, we have to live together with false alarms, but also we need methods to control them. As for all approximation methods, also for abstract interpretation we need to estimate the accumulated imprecision during program analysis. In this paper we introduce a theory for estimating the error propagation in abstract interpretation, and hence in program analysis. We enrich abstract domains with a weakening of a metric distance. This enriched structure keeps coherence between the standard partial order relating approximated objects by their relative precision and the effective error made in this approximation. An abstract interpretation is precise when it is complete. We introduce the notion of partial completeness as a weakening of precision. In partial completeness the abstract interpreter may produce a bounded number of false alarms. We prove the key recursive properties of the class of programs for which an abstract interpreter is partially complete with a given bound of imprecision. Then, we introduce a proof system for estimating an upper bound of the error accumulated by the abstract interpreter during program analysis. Our framework is general enough to be instantiated to most known metrics for abstract domains.
The Pontic Greeks, besides their long and distinguished history, have a special and important culture and identity, elements of which are still preserved and active by their descendants a century after their settlement in Greece. One element of their identity and culture is their basic yet diverse cuisine, which is an important and recognized local cuisine in contemporary Greece. This study aimed to identify the most common foods, ingredients, and dishes found in Greek Pontic Cuisine.
Six cookbooks, two cooking magazines, four folklore books, and four folklore magazines were reviewed in this study. A considerable amount of data was collected and processed using a text analysis tool.
Results and discussion
The study provides the most frequently encountered dishes, foods, and ingredients that feature in the publications. The most common dishes are soups, including tanomenon sorva (soup with coarse grains, salty strained yogurt, and mint). Among other dishes, siron (a pre-baked filo-based pastry dish), chavitz (a thick corn dish resembling porridge), and foustoron (an omelet with fresh cow butter) are quite common. Common staples are anchovies and greens. In cookbooks and cookery magazines, ingredients include butter, wheat, eggs, tomatoes, milk, bulgur, corn-flour, and cheese. Meanwhile, the study publications are an excellent way of passing down traditional food knowledge intergenerational, as they are largely descended from Pontic Greek progenitors.
After analyzing all the publications, it was declared that dairy products, grains, and vegetables were commonly used in Pontic cuisine. It was concluded that cookbooks are crucial for the preservation of the Greek Pontic culinary tradition.
This study aimed to determine the use of the Twitter network in raising awareness of the emerging corona virus (Covid-19) through analyzing the tweets of the UAE Ministry of Health and Community Protection that were published from 7/1/2020 - 31/7/2020, to reveal the communication role of health institutions in raising awareness of the disease. This study is a descriptive study that uses the analytical approach. It relied on the sample survey method using the content analysis tool. The tweet was considered as a unit of analysis using both social responsibility theory and information seeking. The number of tweets reached 513 tweets. The findings have shown that the Ministry of Health and Prevention in the UAE allocated 62% of its tweets in July to raise awareness of the emerging Corona virus and the majority of these tweets were supported by images and info graphics. Additionally, the tweets focused on all segments of the society. The interest of those in charge of the site appeared through answering all inquiries, The study recommends conducting specialized research in the field of communication networks and their role in health awareness.
Vehicle collisions with animals pose serious issues in countries with well-developed highway networks. Both expanding wildlife populations and the development of urbanised areas reduce the potential contact distance between wildlife species and vehicles. Many recent studies have been conducted to better understand the factors that influence wildlife–vehicle collisions (WVCs) and provide mitigation methods. Most of these studies examined road density, traffic volume, seasonal fluctuations, etc. However, in analysing the distribution of WVC, few studies have considered a spatial and significant distance geostatistical analysis approach that includes how different land-use categories are associated with the distance to WVCs. Our study investigated the spatial distribution of agricultural land, meadows and pastures, forests, built-up areas, rivers, lakes, and ponds, to highlight the most dangerous sections of roadways where WVCs occur. We examined six potential ‘hot spot’ distances (5–10–25–50–100–200 m) to evaluate the role different landscape elements play in the occurrence of WVC. The near analysis tool showed that a distance of 10–25 m to different landscape elements provided the most sensitive results. Hot spots associated with agricultural land, forests, as well as meadows and pastures, peaked on roadways in close proximity (10 m), while hot spots associated with built-up areas, rivers, lakes, and ponds peaked on roadways farther (200 m) from these land-use types. We found that the order of habitat importance in WVC hot spots was agricultural land < forests < meadows and pastures < built-up areas < rivers < lakes and ponds. This methodological approach includes general hot-spot analysis as well as differentiated distance analysis which helps to better reveal the influence of landscape structure on WVCs.
Community economic empowerment is an important approach to realize a balanced, developing and just economic structure, to realize a successful economic empowerment, community business capacity must become strong and independent, and in sync with community’s best potential and product, in this paper is coastal community. The purpose of this study is how the main strategies and work programs that need to be taken to improve the economy of the community in Merauke Regency by optimally utilizing coastal community resources and knowing the inhibiting and supporting factors of empowerment. Qualitative research method with a SWOT analysis tool with a focus on data sources based on the results of interviews and discussions with the fisheries service and fisheries business actors. The results of the study explain that the increase in fisherman productivity has the highest weight value which is carried out by increasing the role of capital assistance and market intervention, verified by the efforts of coastal communities.
Set pieces are important for the success of football teams, with the corner kick being one of the most game defining events. The aim of this research was twofold: (1) to analyze the corner kicks of a senior football amateur team, and (2) to compare the corner kicks of successful and unsuccessful teams (of the 2020/21 sporting season). In total, 500 corners were observed using a bespoke notational analysis tool, using a specific observational instrument tool (8 criteria; 25 categories). Out of the 500 corner kicks, 6% resulted in a goal. A greater number of direct corners using inswing trajectories were performed (n = 54%). Corners were delivered to central and front post areas most frequently (n = 79%). Five attackers were most predominantly used for offensive corners (n = 58%), but defenders won the ball more frequently (n = 44%). Attempts at goal occurred following a corner most commonly from outside of the box (n = 7%). Goals were scored most frequently with the foot (n = 16%) and head (n = 15%). Successful teams are more effective at reaching the attackers and score more goals directly from corners. Unsuccessful teams deliver more corner kicks out of play, the first touch is more frequently from the opposition defenders, and fewe goals are scored from corner kicks. The study provides an insight into the determining factors and patterns that influence corner kicks and success in football matches. This information should be used by coaches to prepare teams for both offensive and defensive corner kicks to increase team success and match outcomes.
AbstractPersistent homology is an effective topological data analysis tool to quantify the structural and morphological features of soft materials, but so far it has not been used to characterise the dynamical behaviour of complex soft matter systems. Here, we introduce structural heterogeneity, a topological characteristic for semi-ordered materials that captures their degree of organisation at a mesoscopic level and tracks their time-evolution, ultimately detecting the order-disorder transition at the microscopic scale. We show that structural heterogeneity tracks structural changes in a liquid crystal nanocomposite, reveals the effect of confined geometry on the nematic-isotropic and isotropic-nematic phase transitions, and uncovers physical differences between these two processes. The system used in this work is representative of a class of composite nanomaterials, partially ordered and with complex structural and physical behaviour, where their precise characterisation poses significant challenges. Our developed analytic framework can provide both a qualitative and quantitative characterisation of the dynamical behaviour of a wide range of semi-ordered soft matter systems.
Non-destructive depth profile evaluation of multi-layer thin film stacks using simultaneous analysis of angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data from multiple instruments is demonstrated. The data analysis algorithm, called the maximum smoothness method, was originally designed to handle data from a single XPS instrument with a single x-ray energy; in this work, the algorithm is extended to provide a simultaneous analysis tool which can handle data from multiple instruments with multiple x-ray energies. The analysis provides depth profiles for multilayer stacks that cannot be obtained by conventional data analysis methods. In this paper, metal multi-layer stack samples with total thickness greater than 10 nm are analyzed with the maximum smoothness method to nondestructively obtain depth profiles, with precise information on the chemical states of atoms in the surface layer (< 2 nm) and the overall layer stack structure, which can only be obtained by analyzing the data from multiple instruments.
This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of financial performance (profitability, liquidity, leverage), dividend policy and managerial ownership on firm value. Manufacturing companies in the consumer goods sub-sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the 2016-2020 period are the samples in this study. Samples were obtained as many as 9 companies using purposive sampling technique. Multiple linear regression analysis tool. Financial performance is measured using profitability, liquidity, and leverage. The results of the study found that profitability and managerial ownership have an effect on firm value, while liquidity, leverage and dividend policy have no effect on firm value.
The current exploitation of freshwater, as well as the significant increase in sewage sludge production from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), represent nowadays a critical issue for the implementation of sustainable development consistent with the circular economy concept. There is an urgent need to rethink the concept of WWTPs from the conventional approach consisting in pollutant removal plants to water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the demonstration case studies at the Marineo and Corleone WRRFs in Sicily (IT), with the final aim showing the effectiveness of the resources recovery systems, as well as the importance of plant optimization to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WRRFs. This study is part of the H2020 European Project “Achieving wider uptake of water-smart solutions—Wider-Uptake”, which final aim is to demonstrate the water-smart solution feasibility in the wastewater sector. The main project goal is to overcome the existing barriers that hamper the transition to circularity through the implementation of a governance analysis tool. The preliminary actions in the two demonstration cases are first presented, while, subsequently, the water-smart solutions to be implemented are thoroughly described, highlighting their roles in the transition process. The achieved preliminary results underlined the significant potential of WRRF application, a great chance to demonstrate the feasibility of innovative solutions in the wastewater sector to overcome the existing social, administrative and technical barriers.