scholarly journals Green and Affordable Manufacturing Method for Multi-Scale Porous Carbon Nanofibers and Its Application in Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Dawei Fang ◽  
Xinyu An ◽  
Ang Zhang ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Xiaoxue Ma ◽  

Abstract Carbon nanofibers with multi-scale pores have been easily constructed by synchronous water etching during the carbonization process of PAN nanofibers, reducing the additional consumption of energy and time. After etching by high-temperature water vapor, the fiber surface becomes more coarse, and large amounts of etched pits are formed, effectively increasing the electrode’s specific surface area and hydrophilicity. Oxygen content is also significantly increased, which may effectively increase the electrocatalytic active sites of the electrode. Electrochemical tests verified the improved electrocatalytic activity and increased effective surface area. As a result, the VRFB single cell with water vapor etched carbon nanofibers as its electrode shows higher battery efficiencies than that with pristine carbon nanofibers; the energy efficiency improves by nearly 9.4% at 200 mA·cm-2. After 100 charge/discharge cycles, the battery efficiency has no obvious attenuation, and the capacity attenuation rate of single cycle is nearly 0.26%,suggesting a satisfactory cycling stability. This green and simple method for constructing multi-scale porous carbon nanofibers electrode is expected to achieve large-scale production of high-performance electrode materials, and can be applied in various electrochemical energy storage systems.

Yaqi Yang ◽  
Ziqiang Shao ◽  
Feijun Wang

Abstract Due to the low specific capacitance and small specific surface area of conventional carbon materials used as electrode materials for double-layer capacitors, the search for more ideal materials and ingenious preparation methods remains a major challenge. In this study, fractional porous carbon nanosheets were prepared by co-doping Fe and N with chitosan as nitrogen source. The advantage of this method is that the carbon nanosheets can have a large number of pore structures and produce a large specific surface area. The presence of Fe catalyzes the graphitization of carbon in the carbon layer during carbonization process, and further increases the specific surface area of the electrode material. This structure provides an efficient ion and electron transport pathway, which enables more active sites to participate in the REDOX reaction, thus significantly enhancing the electrochemical performance of SCs. The specific surface area of CS-800 is up to 1587 m2 g−1. When the current density is 0.5 A g−1, the specific capacitance of CS-800 reaches 308.84 F g−1, and remains 84.61 % of the initial value after 10,000 cycles. The Coulomb efficiency of CS-800 is almost 100 % after a long cycle, which indicates that CS-800 has more ideal double-layer capacitance and pseudo capacitance.

2019 ◽  
Vol 43 (48) ◽  
pp. 19372-19378 ◽  
Jianyu Huang ◽  
Simin Liu ◽  
Zifang Peng ◽  
Zhuoxian Shao ◽  
Yuanyuan Zhang ◽  

The synergistic effects of high surface area and abundant heteroatoms make porous carbons superior electrode materials.

RSC Advances ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (17) ◽  
pp. 9577-9583 ◽  
Hui Yu ◽  
Wenjian Zhu ◽  
Hu Zhou ◽  
Jianfeng Liu ◽  
Zhen Yang ◽  

The [email protected] composite was prepared by the combination of metal–organic framework (ZIF-8)-derived porous carbon and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) by a simple method.

2016 ◽  
Vol 120 (14) ◽  
pp. 7705-7714 ◽  
Beomgyun Jeong ◽  
Dongyoon Shin ◽  
Myounghoon Choun ◽  
Sandip Maurya ◽  
Jaeyoon Baik ◽  

2010 ◽  
Vol 1256 ◽  
Girija Shankar Chaubey ◽  
Yuan Yao ◽  
Julien Pierre Amelie Makongo Mangan ◽  
Pranati Sahoo ◽  
Pierre F. P. Poudeu ◽  

AbstractA simple method is reported for the synthesis of monodispersed HfO2 nanoparticles by the ammonia catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of hafnium (IV) tert-butoxide in the presence of surfactants at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy shows faceted nanoparticles with an average diameter of 3-4 nm. As-synthesized nanoparticles are amorphous in nature and crystallize upon moderate heat treatment. The HfO2 nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution, large specific surface area and good thermal stability. Specific surface area was about 239 m2/g on as-prepared nanoparticle samples while those annealed at 500 °C have specific surface area of 221 m2/g indicating that there was no significant increase in particle size. This result was further confirmed by TEM images of nanoparticles annealed at 300 °C and 500 °C. X-ray diffraction studies of the crystallized nanoparticles revealed that HfO2 nanoparticles were monoclinic in structure. The synthetic procedure used in this work can be readily modified for large scale production of monodispersed HfO2 nanoparticles.

Laicong Deng ◽  
Zhuxian Yang ◽  
Rong Li ◽  
Binling Chen ◽  
Quanli Jia ◽  

AbstractDeveloping cost-effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is vital in energy conversion and storage applications. Herein, we report a simple method for the synthesis of graphene-reinforced CoS/C nanocomposites and the evaluation of their electrocatalytic performance for typical electrocatalytic reactions. Nanocomposites of CoS embedded in N, S co-doped porous carbon and graphene ([email protected]/Graphene) were generated via simultaneous sulfurization and carbonization of one-pot synthesized graphite oxide-ZIF-67 precursors. The obtained [email protected]/Graphene nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and gas sorption. It is found that CoS nanoparticles homogenously dispersed in the in situ formed N, S co-doped porous carbon/graphene matrix. The [email protected]/10Graphene composite not only shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward ORR with high onset potential of 0.89 V, four-electron pathway and superior durability of maintaining 98% of current after continuously running for around 5 h, but also exhibits good performance for OER and HER, due to the improved electrical conductivity, increased catalytic active sites and connectivity between the electrocatalytic active CoS and the carbon matrix. This work offers a new approach for the development of novel multifunctional nanocomposites for the next generation of energy conversion and storage applications.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (17) ◽  
pp. 4932
Gabriela Hristea ◽  
Mihai Iordoc ◽  
Andreea Culcea

The relative performance of different porous solids in different applications is highly dependent on the internal pore structure of each material. Highly porous carbon materials can be prepared by evaporative drying and the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde gels. By determining the correct synthesis parameters, the pore system of such materials can be reshaped. Depending on some important processing factors such as the dilution ratio or the initial pH of the precursor solution, various porous or non-porous carbon materials can be synthesized. This paper addresses carbon xerogels (CX) designed as a material electrode in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems for water desalination. In this work CX materials were synthesized via poly-condensation reactions of resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) on a carbon felt sheet followed by pyrolysis. The resulting sheets were used as electrodes to develop a CDI experimental multi-cell laboratory system. The initial pH of the RF solution and the dilution ratio effect on the resulting carbon surface area and structure were analyzed. Surface area measurements using the BET method and an electrochemical capacitance evaluation of the obtained xerogels through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were also performed. Finally, using our experimental CDI multi-cell laboratory system based on the obtained CX, we discuss the experimental data for the desalination rate as a function of the voltage and salt concentration. As a result, the developed model’s efficiency is demonstrated. The main goal of this work was to develop an efficient electrode-based novel carbon that could be commercially competitive, as well as to create guidelines for future desalination research using CX electrode materials.

Carbon ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 70 ◽  
pp. 308-312 ◽  
Han-Ik Joh ◽  
Hae Kyung Song ◽  
Chel-Ho Lee ◽  
Jin-Mun Yun ◽  
Seong Mu Jo ◽  

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