scale production
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-24
R. Brovko ◽  
L. Mushinskii ◽  
V. Doluda

The methanol into hydrocarbons transformation is a complex catalytic reaction accompanied by the formation of a wide range of hydrocarbons and proceeding on the surface of acid sites of various zeolites. Zeolite H-ZSM-5 considered to be most often used catalyst for this process. H-ZSM-5 is a highly dispersed material with a crystal diameter of 1–20 microns, which complicates its direct use in reactors with a fixed catalyst bed due to the high hydraulic pressure drop of the catalytic bed. Traditionally in industry, this issue is solved by using complex reactor systems with a fluidized bed, which is justified for large-scale production. In small and medium-size plants, the use of fluidized bed systems is not economically feasible. One of the possible solutions to this problem is the use of a monolithic catalyst with a supported layer of H-ZSM-5 zeolite. This article presents a study of the catalytic activity of a zeolite-containing microstructured monolith in methanol into hydrocarbons transformation. The monolith was synthesized by pressing a zeolite-containing mass followed by drying, calcining, and secondary growth of the zeolite on the monolith surface. A sample of a monolith with an average channel diameter of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm were synthesized this way. Samples of the microstructured catalyst were tested at varying temperatures from 250 to 450 °C and at varying the specific methanol feed rate from 0.65 to 2.3 kg (MeOH)/(kg (Cat) h). For this purpose, the monolithic catalyst was placed in a reactor for testing microstructured catalysts, which consisted of a pump, a temperature controller, a catalytic reactor, a condenser, a separating funnel, and a chromatograph. Varying the conditions showed that for the preferential production of gaseous C1–C4 hydrocarbons, it is advisable to carry out the reaction under the following conditions: the average diameter of the catalyst channels is 2 mm, the reaction temperature is 350 °C, the methanol feed rate is 1.65 kg (MeOH)/(kg (Cat) h). For the predominant formation of liquid hydrocarbons of the C5–C8 fraction, it is advisable to carry out the transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons under the following conditions: the average diameter of the catalyst channels is 1 mm, the reaction temperature is 350 °C, the methanol feed rate is 0.65 kg (MeOH) / (kg (Cat) h). For the predominant formation of liquid hydrocarbons of the C9–C12 fraction, it is advisable to carry out the transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons under the following conditions: the average diameter of the catalyst channels is 0.5 mm, the reaction temperature is 350 °C, and the methanol feed rate is 0.65 kg (MeOH) / (kg (Cat) h).

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 278
John M. Baust ◽  
Kristi K. Snyder ◽  
Robert G. Van Buskirk ◽  
John G. Baust

The development and use of complex cell-based products in clinical and discovery science continues to grow at an unprecedented pace. To this end, cryopreservation plays a critical role, serving as an enabling process, providing on-demand access to biological material, facilitating large scale production, storage, and distribution of living materials. Despite serving a critical role and substantial improvements over the last several decades, cryopreservation often remains a bottleneck impacting numerous areas including cell therapy, tissue engineering, and tissue banking. Studies have illustrated the impact and benefit of controlling cryopreservation-induced delayed-onset cell death (CIDOCD) through various “front end” strategies, such as specialized media, new cryoprotective agents, and molecular control during cryopreservation. While proving highly successful, a substantial level of cell death and loss of cell function remains associated with cryopreservation. Recently, we focused on developing technologies (RevitalICE™) designed to reduce the impact of CIDOCD through buffering the cell stress response during the post-thaw recovery phase in an effort to improve the recovery of previously cryopreserved samples. In this study, we investigated the impact of modulating apoptotic caspase activation, oxidative stress, unfolded protein response, and free radical damage in the initial 24 h post-thaw on overall cell survival. Human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro cryopreserved in both traditional extracellular-type and intracellular-type cryopreservation freeze media were utilized as a model cell system to assess impact on survival. Our findings demonstrated that through the modulation of several of these pathways, improvements in cell recovery were obtained, regardless of the freeze media and dimethyl sulfoxide concentration utilized. Specifically, through the use of oxidative stress inhibitors, an average increase of 20% in overall viability was observed. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that by using the post-thaw recovery reagent on samples cryopreserved in intracellular-type media (Unisol™), improvements in overall cell survival approaching 80% of non-frozen controls were attained. While improvements in overall survival were obtained, an assessment on the impact of specific cell subpopulations and functionality remains to be completed. While work remains, these results represent an important step forward in the development of improved cryopreservation processes for use in discovery science, and commercial and clinical settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 838
Maulidia Rahmawati ◽  
Choirul Mahfud ◽  
Gianfranco Risuleo ◽  
Nurul Jadid

Plant tissue culture plays an important role in plant biotechnology due to its potential for massive production of improved crop varieties and high yield of important secondary metabolites. Several efforts have been made to ameliorate the effectiveness and production of plant tissue culture, using biotic and abiotic factors. Nowadays, the addition of nanoparticles as elicitors has, for instance, gained worldwide interest because of its success in microbial decontamination and enhancement of secondary metabolites. Nanoparticles are entities in the nanometric dimension range: they possess unique physicochemical properties. Among all nanoparticles, silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known for their antimicrobial and hormetic effects, which in appropriate doses, led to the improvement of plant biomass as well as secondary metabolite accumulation. This review is focused on the evaluation of the integration of nanotechnology with plant tissue culture. The highlight is especially conveyed on secondary metabolite enhancement, effects on plant growth and biomass accumulation as well as their possible mechanism of action. In addition, some perspectives of the use of nanomaterials as potential therapeutic agents are also discussed. Thus, the information provided will be a good tool for future research in plant improvement and the large-scale production of important secondary metabolites. Elicitation of silver-nanoparticles, as well as nanomaterials, function as therapeutic agents for animal well-being is expected to play a major role in the process. However, nanosized supramolecular aggregates have received an increased resonance also in other fields of application such as animal welfare. Therefore, the concluding section of this contribution is dedicated to the description and possible potential and usage of different nanoparticles that have been the object of work and expertise also in our laboratories.

А.Ю. Боташев ◽  
А.А. Мусаев

Проведен анализ технологических возможностей двухкамерных устройств для листовой штамповки с одной и двумя камерами сгорания. В устройствах с одной камерой сгорания штамповка детали происходит в холодном состоянии заготовки под действием на нее гибкой среды за счет кинетической энергии поршня, ускоряемого продуктами сгорания газообразной топливной смеси. В устройствах с двумя камерами сгорания процесс штамповки совершается с нагревом заготовки воздействием на нее горячего газа, образованного при сгорании в верхней камере предварительно сжатой топливной смеси. При этом сжатие смеси осуществляется за счет энергии продуктов сгорания, образованных в нижней камере сгорания. Доказано, что устройства с одной камерой сгорания целесообразно использовать для штамповки из пластичных сортов сталей деталей разнообразной формы толщиной до 4 мм и из пластичных цветных сплавов толщиной до 8 мм. Устройства с двумя камерами сгорания целесообразно использовать для штамповки деталей из малопластичных сортов алюминиевых, титановых сплавов и других труднодеформируемых сплавов. Двухкамерные устройства для листовой штамповки обладают широкими технологическими возможностями и могут быть эффективно использованы в мелкосерийных производствах для штамповки деталей различной формы We carried out the analysis of technological capabilities of two-chamber devices for sheet stamping with one and two combustion chambers. In devices with one combustion chamber, the stamping process is carried out in the cold state of the workpiece by the action of an elastic medium on it, using the kinetic energy of the piston accelerated by the combustion products of the gaseous fuel mixture. In devices with two combustion chambers, the stamping process is carried out with the heating of the workpiece by the action of the hot gas formed during combustion in the upper chamber of the pre-compressed fuel mixture. In this case, the mixture is compressed due to the energy of the combustion products formed in the lower chamber. We established that devices with one combustion chamber are expedient to be used for stamping parts of various shapes with a thickness of up to 4 mm and from plastic non-ferrous alloys with a thickness of up to 8 mm from ductile steels. Devices with two combustion chambers are advisable to be used for stamping parts from low-plastic grades of aluminum, titanium alloys and other hard-to-deform alloys. Two-chamber devices for sheet stamping have wide technological capabilities and can be effectively used in small-scale production for stamping parts of various shapes

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 215
Zhihao Ju ◽  
Tingting Feng ◽  
Jia Feng ◽  
Junping Lv ◽  
Shulian Xie ◽  

By separating and extracting algae from the collected water samples, an oil-producing diatom strain was obtained. Microscopic observation of the strain revealed that its morphological characteristics were highly similar to those of the genus Cyclotella. The cloning of 18S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis showed that the algae were clustered with Cyclotella menegheniana with a high support rate, indicating that the alga was C. menegheniana. The fatty acid content of the alga was determined and found to be mainly C14, C16, and C18 fatty acids, which were in accordance with the relevant standards for edible oil. In this study, different gradient levels of salinity and light were set to investigate the culture and bioactive substance production of C. menegheniana. The results showed that the best growth condition was achieved when the salinity was 15 g·L−1, and its biomass and oil content were the highest at 0.27 g·L−1 and 21%, respectively. The final biomass was the highest when the light intensity was 2000 Lux and the oil content was 18.7%. The results of the study provided a basis for the large-scale production of edible oils and biodiesel.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Jacob S. Kruger ◽  
Matthew Wiatrowski ◽  
Ryan E. Davis ◽  
Tao Dong ◽  
Eric P. Knoshaug ◽  

Recent techno-economic analysis (TEA) has underscored that for algal biofuels to be cost competitive with petroleum fuels, co-products are necessary to offset the cost of fuel production. The co-product suite must scale with fuel production while also maximizing value from the non-fuel precursor components. The co-product suite also depends on algal biomass composition, which is highly dynamic and depends on environmental conditions during cultivation. Intentional shifts in composition during cultivation are often associated with reduced biomass productivity, which can increase feedstock production costs for the algae-based biorefinery. The optimal algae-based biorefinery configuration is thus a function of many factors. We have found that comprehensive TEA, which requires the construction of process models with detailed mass and energy balances, along with a complete accounting of capital and operating expenditures for a commercial-scale production facility, provides invaluable insight into the viability of a proposed biorefinery configuration. This insight is reflected in improved viability for one biorefining approach that we have developed over the last 10 years, namely, the Combined Algal Processing (CAP) approach. This approach fractionates algal biomass into carbohydrate-, lipid-, and protein-rich fractions, and tailors upgrading chemistry to the composition of each fraction. In particular, transitioning from valorization of only the lipids to a co-product suite from multiple components of high-carbohydrate algal biomass can reduce the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) from more than $8/gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE) to $2.50/GGE. This paper summarizes that progress and discusses several surprising implications in this optimization approach.

Dawei Fang ◽  
Xinyu An ◽  
Ang Zhang ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Xiaoxue Ma ◽  

Abstract Carbon nanofibers with multi-scale pores have been easily constructed by synchronous water etching during the carbonization process of PAN nanofibers, reducing the additional consumption of energy and time. After etching by high-temperature water vapor, the fiber surface becomes more coarse, and large amounts of etched pits are formed, effectively increasing the electrode’s specific surface area and hydrophilicity. Oxygen content is also significantly increased, which may effectively increase the electrocatalytic active sites of the electrode. Electrochemical tests verified the improved electrocatalytic activity and increased effective surface area. As a result, the VRFB single cell with water vapor etched carbon nanofibers as its electrode shows higher battery efficiencies than that with pristine carbon nanofibers; the energy efficiency improves by nearly 9.4% at 200 mA·cm-2. After 100 charge/discharge cycles, the battery efficiency has no obvious attenuation, and the capacity attenuation rate of single cycle is nearly 0.26%,suggesting a satisfactory cycling stability. This green and simple method for constructing multi-scale porous carbon nanofibers electrode is expected to achieve large-scale production of high-performance electrode materials, and can be applied in various electrochemical energy storage systems.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 552
Nojan Aliahmad ◽  
Pias Kumar Biswas ◽  
Hamid Dalir ◽  
Mangilal Agarwal

Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)-anchored single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composites have been developed through a simple sol–gel process, followed by hydrothermal treatment. The resulting material is suitable for use in flexible ultra-high capacity electrode applications for lithium-ion batteries. The unique combination of V2O5 with 0.2 wt.% of SWCNT offers a highly conductive three-dimensional network. This ultimately alleviates the low lithium-ion intercalation seen in V2O5 itself and facilitates vanadium redox reactions. The integration of SWCNTs into the layered structure of V2O5 leads to a high specific capacity of 390 mAhg−1 at 0.1 C between 1.8 to 3.8 V, which is close to the theoretical capacity of V2O5 (443 mAhg−1). In recent research, most of the V2O5 with carbonaceous materials shows higher specific capacity but limited cyclability and poor rate capability. In this work, good cyclability with only 0.3% per cycle degradation during 200 cycles and enhanced rate capability of 178 mAhg−1 at 10 C have been achieved. The excellent electrochemical kinetics during lithiation/delithiation is attributed to the chemical interaction of SWCNTs entrapped between layers of the V2O5 nanostructured network. Proper dispersion of SWCNTs into the V2O5 structure, and its resulting effects, have been validated by SEM, TEM, XPS, XRD, and electrical resistivity measurements. This innovative hybrid material offers a new direction for the large-scale production of high-performance cathode materials for advanced flexible and structural battery applications.

2022 ◽  
Foteini Petrakli ◽  
Anastasia Gkika ◽  
Anestis Vlysidis ◽  
Panagiotis Karayannis ◽  
Elias Koumoulos

Abstract Innovative nanocomposite materials and resultant additive manufacturing products are necessary to be assessed for their carbon footprint towards top priorities of EU for plastics, including the European Green Deal principles and the Action Plan for Circular Economy. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is widely applied standardized methodology that aims to study potential environmental impacts of novel products. Nano-scale materials (NM) are usually dispersed in polymer to enhance their limited functional properties resulting in a spectrum of end-products for multiple applications. However, little information exists on their environmental impact. Within this context, this study presents a ‘cradle-to-gate plus end-of-life’ LCA approach, studying different types of 3D printing nanocomposite filaments across the supply chain. Three different types of polymer matrixes were examined: polyamide (PA), polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid (PLA), additivated with three different types of nanomaterial additives: multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene oxide (GO) forms and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), considering lab-scale production. In addition, several different EoL scenarios have been examined for the materials. Finally, LCA findings are coupled with the performance (taken here as conductivity) of these new materials to assist the decision-making process for selecting efficient scenarios with the least environmental impact. The outputs of this examination enable identification of potential sustainability issues for novel nanocomposite materials at an early design stage, while also assisting in the definition of actions to mitigate such issues. Thus, LCA studies can generate knowledge on the environmental impacts of nano-enabled materials, while also serving as a valuable decision support tool towards optimizing material sustainability aspects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 723-732
Lev Oganesyants ◽  
Elena Sevostianova ◽  
Elena Kuzmina ◽  
Mikhail Ganin ◽  
Eugene Chebykin ◽  

Introduction. Due to its natural composition, the deep water of Lake Baikal can be bottled without any conserving agents. The development of large-scale production of bottled Baikal water requires its detailed study in order to protect it from counterfeit and falsification. The purpose of this work was to study the isotopic and chemical composition of the deep water of Lake Baikal and offer indicators for its identification. Study objects and methods. The research included deep water of Lake Baikal, sampled at various points, the water from the Angara River, and the tap water from the cities of Irkutsk and Shelekhov. The tests were performed using a quadrupole ICP-MS mass spectrometer and a Delta V Plus isotope mass spectrometer with a GasBench II module. Results and discussion. All the water samples revealed fresh water with insignificant mineralization. As for salts, the deep water samples had a lower content of sodium and chlorides, as well as a higher content of silicon. As for metals, the deep water samples contained iron, manganese, copper, and zinc; in the tap water samples, these indicators were significantly higher. Unlike that of the Angara water samples, the isotopic profile of the deep water samples was somewhat “lighter”, both in the ratio of oxygen isotopes δ18O – by 0.73‰, and hydrogen δD – by 0.49‰. The tap water samples had a higher deuterium content. The content of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the tap water samples was close to that in the Angara samples. Conclusion. The complex physicochemical and isotope analyses expanded the list of identification indicators and made it possible to identify the deep water of Lake Baikal.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document