ablation zone
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Tiago Silva ◽  
Jakob Abermann ◽  
Brice Noël ◽  
Sonika Shahi ◽  
Willem Jan van de Berg ◽  

Abstract. Climate change is particularly strong in Greenland primarily as a result of changes in advection of heat and moisture fluxes from lower latitudes. The atmospheric structures involved influence the surface mass balance and their pattern are largely explained by climate oscillations which describe the internal climate variability. Based on a clustering method, we combine the Greenland Blocking Index and the North Atlantic Oscillation index with the vertically integrated water vapor to analyze inter-seasonal and regional impacts of the North Atlantic influence on the surface energy components over the Greenland Ice Sheet. In comparison to the reference period (1959–1990), the atmosphere has become warmer and moister during recent decades (1991–2020) for contrasting atmospheric circulation patterns. Particularly in the northern regions, increases in tropospheric water vapor enhance incoming longwave radiation and thus contribute to surface warming. Surface warming is most evident in winter, although its magnitude and spatial extent depend on the prevailing atmospheric configuration. Relative to the reference period, increases in sensible heat flux in the summer ablation zone are found irrespective of the atmospheric circulation pattern. Especially in the northern ablation zone, these are explained by the stronger katabatic winds which are partly driven by the larger surface pressure gradients between the ice/snow-covered surface and adjacent seas, and by the larger temperature gradient between near-surface air and the air above. Increases in net shortwave radiation are mainly connected to high-pressure systems. Whereas in the southern part of Greenland the atmosphere has gotten optical thinner, thus allowing more incoming shortwave radiation to reach the surface, in the northern part the incoming shortwave radiation flux has changed little with respect to the reference period, but the surface albedo decreased due to the expansion of the bare ice area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 56-62
M. A. Ryabova ◽  
M. Yu. Ulupov ◽  
N. A. Shumilova ◽  
G. V. Portnov ◽  
E. K. Tikhomirova ◽  

Aim of the study was to compare the cutting and coagulation properties of 1.56 and 1.94 μm fiber lasers with those of a 0.98 μm semiconductor laser.Materials and methods. A comparative study of the biological effects of 1.56 and 1.94 µm lasers and a 0.98 µm semiconductor laser used in a constant, continuous mode was carried out. The cutting properties of the lasers were evaluated on the chicken muscle tissue samples by the width and depth of the ablation zone formed via a linear laser incision at a speed of 2 mm/s, while the coagulation properties were assessed by the width of the lateral coagulation zone. The zones were measured using a surgical microscope and a calibration slide. For statistical analysis, power values of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 W were chosen for each laser wavelength.Results. Analysis of the findings confirmed that laser wavelength had a statistically significant effect on the linear dependence between incision parameters and laser power. It was found that the 1.56 μm fiber laser (water absorption) had a greater coagulation ability but a comparable cutting ability compared with the 0.98 μm laser (hemoglobin absorption). When used in the power mode of 7W or higher, the 1.94 µm laser provided superior cutting performance compared with the 0.98 µm semiconductor laser at the same exposure power. Elevating the power in any of the lasers primarily increased the width of the ablation zone, and to a lesser extent – the crater depth and the width of the lateral coagulation zone. Therefore, in comparison with the 0.98 μm semiconductor laser, higher radiation power in the 1.56 and 1.94 μm lasers mainly influences their cutting properties, expanding the width and depth of the ablation zone, and has a smaller effect on their coagulation ability.Conclusion. The findings of the study showed that the 1.56 and 1.94 μm fiber lasers have better coagulation properties in comparison with the 0.98 μm semiconductor laser. was statistically proven that all incision characteristics (width of the lateral coagulation zone, depth and width of the ablation zone) for the 1.56, 1.94, and 0.98 μm lasers depend on the power of laser radiation. The 1.94 µm laser is superior to the 0.98 µm laser in its cutting properties. 

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Yin Fu ◽  
Qiao Liu ◽  
Guoxiang Liu ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  

Abstract Most glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau have experienced continuous mass losses in response to global warming. However, the seasonal dynamics of glaciers on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau have rarely been reported in terms of glacier surface elevation and velocity. This paper presents a first attempt to explore the seasonal dynamics of the debris-covered Dagongba Glacier within the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We use the multitemporal unoccupied aerial vehicle images collected over the lower ablation zone on 8 June and 17 October 2018, and 13 May 2019, and then perform an analysis concerning climatic fluctuations. The results reveal that the mean surface elevation decrease of the Dagongba Glacier during the warm season ( $2.81\pm 0.44$ m) was remarkably higher than the cold season ( $0.72\pm 0.45$ m). Particularly notable glacier surface elevation changes were found around supraglacial lakes and ice cliffs where ice ablation rates were $\sim$ 3 times higher than the average. In addition, a larger longitudinal decline of glacier surface velocity was observed in the warm season than that in the cold season. In terms of further comparative analysis, the Dagongba Glacier experienced a decrease in surface velocity between 1982–83 and 2018–19, with a decrease in the warm season possibly twice as large as that in the cold season.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. 5409-5421
Joel Harper ◽  
Toby Meierbachtol ◽  
Neil Humphrey ◽  
Jun Saito ◽  
Aidan Stansberry

Abstract. Basal sliding in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet is closely associated with water from surface melt introduced to the bed in summer, yet melting of basal ice also generates subglacial water year-round. Assessments of basal melt rely on modeling with results strongly dependent upon assumptions with poor observational constraints. Here we use surface and borehole measurements to investigate the generation and fate of basal meltwater in the ablation zone of Isunnguata Sermia basin, western Greenland. The observational data are used to constrain estimates of the heat and water balances, providing insights into subglacial hydrology during the winter months when surface melt is minimal or nonexistent. Despite relatively slow ice flow speeds during winter, the basal meltwater generation from sliding friction remains manyfold greater than that due to geothermal heat flux. A steady acceleration of ice flow over the winter period at our borehole sites can cause the rate of basal water generation to increase by up to 20 %. Borehole measurements show high but steady basal water pressure rather than monotonically increasing pressure. Ice and groundwater sinks for water do not likely have sufficient capacity to accommodate the meltwater generated in winter. Analysis of basal cavity dynamics suggests that cavity opening associated with flow acceleration likely accommodates only a portion of the basal meltwater, implying that a residual is routed to the terminus through a poorly connected drainage system. A forcing from cavity expansion at high pressure may explain observations of winter acceleration in western Greenland.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (10(74)) ◽  
pp. 22-25
V. Gryzunov ◽  
A. Zaycev ◽  
Yu. Kim ◽  
D. Tkhai

Therapeutic significance in the studies of HIFU-induced effects of is attached to the local heating of tissues, but the role of the mechanical component caused by non-stationary cavitation is practically not taken into account. Calculations show that the temperature inside cavitation bubbles can differ significantly from the temperature in the thermal ablation zone, and the developing temperature gradient can change the formation of the thermal field. Collapsing bubbles can cause mechanical destruction of tissues.

Emona Barzakova ◽  
Niveditha Senthilvel ◽  
Philipp Bruners ◽  
Sebastian Keil ◽  
Georg Lurje ◽  

Purpose Small hepatic malignancies scheduled for CT-guided percutaneous ablation may have been identified in the hepatobiliary phase of liver MRI or in a specific phase of multi-phase CT but may be occult on unenhanced CT used to guide the ablation. We investigated whether the detectability of the target lesion would impact the efficacy of CT-guided hepatic tumor ablations. Materials and Methods We included 69 patients with 99 malignant liver lesions (25 primary, 44 metastases) who underwent IRE (n = 35), RFA (n = 41), or MWA (n = 23) between 01/2015 and 06/2018. All procedures were performed under CT guidance. Lesions not detectable on CT (NDL) were targeted through identification of anatomical landmarks on preinterventional contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Rates of incomplete ablation, size of ablation zone, local tumor recurrence, intrahepatic progression-free survival (ihPFS), and adverse event rates were compared for detectable lesions (DL) vs. NDL. Results 40 lesions were NDL, and 59 lesions were DL on unenhanced CT. The mean follow-up was 16.2 months (14.8 for DL and 18.2 for NDL). The mean diameter of NDL and DL was similar (12.9 mm vs. 14.9 mm). The mean ablation zone size was similar (37.1 mm vs. 38.8 mm). Incomplete ablation did not differ between NDL vs. DL (5.0 % [2/40; 0.6–16.9 %] vs. 3.4 % [2/59; 0.4–11.7 %]), nor did local tumor recurrence (15.4 % [6/39; 5.7 %–30.5 %] vs. 16.9 % [10/59; 8.4–29.0 %]), or median ihPFS (15.5 months vs. 14.3 months). Conclusion Target lesion detectability on interventional CT does not have a significant impact on outcome after percutaneous liver ablation when anatomical landmarks are used to guide needle placement. Key Points:  Citation Format

Meghan G. Lubner ◽  
Timothy J. Ziemlewicz ◽  
Shane A. Wells ◽  
Ke Li ◽  
Po-Hung Wu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Erika Chelales ◽  
Robert Morhard ◽  
Corrine Nief ◽  
Brian Crouch ◽  
Jeffrey I. Everitt ◽  

AbstractEthanol provides a rapid, low-cost ablative solution for liver tumors with a small technological footprint but suffers from uncontrolled diffusion in target tissue, limiting treatment precision and accuracy. Incorporating the gel-forming polymer ethyl cellulose to ethanol localizes the distribution. The purpose of this study was to establish a non-invasive methodology based on CT imaging to quantitatively determine the relationship between the delivery parameters of the EC-ethanol formulation, its distribution, and the corresponding necrotic volume. The relationship of radiodensity to ethanol concentration was characterized with water–ethanol surrogates. Ex vivo EC-ethanol ablations were performed to optimize the formulation (n = 6). In vivo ablations were performed to compare the optimal EC-ethanol formulation to pure ethanol (n = 6). Ablations were monitored with CT and ethanol distribution volume was quantified. Livers were removed, sectioned and stained with NADH-diaphorase to determine the ablative extent, and a detailed time-course histological study was performed to assess the wound healing process. CT imaging of ethanol–water surrogates demonstrated the ethanol concentration-radiodensity relationship is approximately linear. A concentration of 12% EC in ethanol created the largest distribution volume, more than eight-fold that of pure ethanol, ex vivo. In vivo, 12% EC-ethanol was superior to pure ethanol, yielding a distribution volume three-fold greater and an ablation zone six-fold greater than pure ethanol. Finally, a time course histological evaluation of the liver post-ablation with 12% EC-ethanol and pure ethanol revealed that while both induce coagulative necrosis and similar tissue responses at 1–4 weeks post-ablation, 12% EC-ethanol yielded a larger ablation zone. The current study demonstrates the suitability of CT imaging to determine distribution volume and concentration of ethanol in tissue. The distribution volume of EC-ethanol is nearly equivalent to the resultant necrotic volume and increases distribution and necrosis compared to pure ethanol.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Noel Pérez ◽  
Karl Muffly ◽  
Stephen E. Saddow

Abstract Background Renal denervation with radiofrequency ablation has become an accepted treatment for drug-resistant hypertension. However, there is a continuing need to develop new catheters for high-accuracy, targeted ablation. We therefore developed a radiofrequency bipolar electrode for controlled, targeted ablation through Joule heating induction between 60 and 100 °C. The bipolar design can easily be assembled into a basket catheter for deployment inside the renal artery. Methods Finite element modeling was used to determine the optimum catheter design to deliver a minimum ablation zone of 4 mm (W) × 10 mm (L) × 4 mm (H) within 60 s with a 500 kHz, 60 Vp-p signal, and 3 W maximum. The in silico model was validated with in vitro experiments using a thermochromic phantom tissue prepared with polyacrylamide gel and a thermochromic ink additive that permanently changes from pink to magenta when heated over 60 °C. Results The in vitro ablation zone closely matched the size and shape of the simulated area. The new electrode design directs the current density towards the artery walls and tissue, reducing unwanted blood temperature increases by focusing energy on the ablation zone. In contrast, the basket catheter design does not block renal flow during renal denervation. Conclusions This computational model of radiofrequency ablation can be used to estimate renal artery ablation zones for highly targeted renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension. Furthermore, this innovative catheter has short ablation times and is one of the lowest power requirements of existing designs to perform the ablation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document