BackgroundTakayasu’s arteritis (TA) is a rare, chronic granulomatous large-vessel vasculitis that can lead to ocular ischemia. Ocular outcomes after therapeutic management in TA remain largely unknown. We herein conduct a case-based systematic review to address the current treatment options in this particular cohort.MethodsPubMed, Medline, and EMBASE databases were searched pertaining to ocular outcomes after systemic treatment in TA. Studies reporting ocular examinations before and after treatment in TA patients with ocular ischemia were included. Clinical characteristics, therapies, ocular outcomes, and complications were recorded.ResultsA 29-year-old woman with newly diagnosed TA showed dramatic regression of Takayasu’s retinopathy (TR) following balloon angioplasty. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used as a novel strategy for subsequent follow-up. A total of 117 eyes of 66 patients with a median age of 27 years were included for systematic review. TR was the most common ocular manifestation. Oral steroids were prescribed in nearly all patients (n = 65), followed by the use of methotrexate and antiplatelet therapy. Of the patients, 65.8% and 34.2% underwent open surgery and endovascular procedure, respectively. The median follow-up period was 12 weeks (interquartile range 8–33.5). Surgical therapy showed better ocular improvement (including visual and imaging responses) in both acute and chronic vision loss, along with fewer complications than medical therapy alone. In the surgical group, the visual prognosis was significantly better in patients with initial visual acuity better than 20/200 (p = 0.03) and those who underwent surgery before stage III TR (p = 0.01). Ocular outcomes were equivalent in the two surgical approaches.ConclusionClinicians should be familiar with ophthalmic manifestations of this potentially treatable complication in TA. Compared with medical therapy alone, surgical intervention might be a better choice for both acute and chronic vision loss. Surgery is best recommended before the onset of irreversible ischemia to the globe. A combined regimen (oral steroids, immunosuppressants, and antiplatelet drugs) might be effective for those with surgical contradictions or reluctance to an invasive procedure. Physicians should be aware of the importance of ocular examinations, including OCTA, during the diagnosis and follow-up in TA.
Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a chronically progressive disease of ectopic enchondral and membranous ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL). Controversy still persists over the superiority of various surgical approaches for cervical OPLL management. Purpose: To see the efficacy of expansive laminoplasty for the management of continuous and mixed type of cervical OPLL retrospectively. Methods: Records of 20 male and 8 female aged 36-72 years (mean, 56.64 years), who underwent surgical treatment posteriorly for continuous and mixed type OPLL by laminoplasty were obtained from the year 2004 - 2020. Clinical features along with imaging studies, which included X -ray/CT /MRI, were done for the diagnosis of OPLL. Multiple variables were studied, including demographics, surgical parameters, complications and functional outcomes. Results: They were followed on an average of 59.86 ± 20.95 months (range, 24 -108 months). The average operative duration was 95 ± 15.52 min (range: 70 - 140), and the intraoperative blood loss was 199.29 ± 33.55 ml. The cervical curvature index reduced to 8.81 ± 1.96 from 11.00 ± 2.49 and the VAS score decreased from 4.25 ± 0.75 to 2.43 ± 1.40. mJOA score improved from 8.64 ± 1.03 to 13.96 ± 1.26 on the last follow-up after surgery (p < 0.01), with average recovery rate of 65.5 %. Conclusions: The management for cervical myelopathy with multilevel stenosis due to continuous and mixed type of OPLL by Laminoplasty is safe and effective.
Introduction Surgical resection of lesions occupying the incisural space is challenging. In a comparative fashion, we aimed to describe the anatomy and surgical approaches to the tentorial incisura and to the rostral brainstem via the intradural subtemporal approach and its infratentorial extensions.
Methods Six fresh human head specimens (12 sides) were prepared for the microscopic dissection of the tentorial incisura using the intradural subtemporal approach and its infratentorial extensions. Endoscope was used to examine the anatomy of the region inadequately exposed with the microscope. Image-guided navigation was used to confirm bony structures visualized around the petrous apex.
Results Standard subtemporal approach provides surgical access to the supratentorial brainstem above the pontomesencephalic sulcus and to the lateral surface of the cerebral peduncle. The linear or triangular tentorial divisions can provide access to the infratentorial space below the pontomesencephalic sulcus. The triangular tentorial flap in comparison with the linear incision obstructs the exposure of anterior incisural space and of the prepontine cistern. Visualization of the brainstem below the trigeminal nerve can be achieved by the anterior petrosectomy.
Conclusion Infratentorial extension of the intradural subtemporal approach is technically demanding due to critical neurovascular structures and a relatively narrow corridor. In-depth anatomical knowledge is essential for the selection of the appropriate operative approach and safe surgical resections of lesions.
Introduction: In this microneurosurgical and anatomical study, we characterized the superficial anastomosing veins of the human brain cortex in human specimens.Material and Methods: We used 21 brain preparations fixed in formalin (5%) that showed no pathological changes and came from the autopsy sections. The superficial veins were dissected out of the arachnoid with the aid of a surgical microscope.Results: We dissected nine female and 12 male brain specimens, with an average age of 71 ± 11 years (range 51–88 years). We classified the superficial veins in five types: (I) the vein of Trolard as the dominat vein; (II) the vein of Labbé as the dominant vein; (III) a dominant sylvian vein group, and the veins of Trolard and Labbé nonexistent or only rudimentary present without contact to the Sylvian vein group; (IV) very weak sylvian veins with the veins of Trolard and Labbé codominant; and V) direct connection of Trolard and Labbé bypassing the Sylvian vein group. The vein of Trolard was dominant (Type I) in 21.4% and the vein of Labbé (Type II) in 16.7%. A dominant sylvian vein group (Type III) was found in 42.9%. Type IV and Type V were found in 14.3 and 4.7% respectively.Conclusion: No systematic description or numerical distribution of the superior anastomotic vein (V. Trolard) and inferior anastomotic vein (V. Labbé) has been found in the existing literature. This study aimed to fill this gap in current literature and provide data to neurosurgeons for the practical planning of surgical approaches.
Pleomorphic adenomas are common tumors of major salivary glands. However, the localization in nasal cavity originating from the lateral wall is exceptional.
This work is a presentation of a very rare case that presents the diagnostic challenge, considering the multitude of malignant and benign differential diagnosis. A discussion of surgical approach, and the possible complications associated with it.
This is the case of an invasive nasal pleomorphic adenoma in a 48-year-old patient; the patient underwent complete excision through combined left lateral rhinotomy and functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Pleomorphic adenoma is a very rare benign tumor of the nasal cavity. Clinical diagnosis is generally difficult regarding the multitude of differential diagnosis. Confirmation is established upon histological aspect.
This is a case of a very rare large pleomorphic adenoma of nasal cavity originating from the lateral wall, associated with differential diagnosis, and surgical approaches, as well as perceivable complications.
The strength of this work is to point out the importance of complete surgical extirpation and thorough follow-up to prevent recurrences and malignant transformation.
Background: Supracondylar humeral fracture (SHF) is the most common type of fracture in children. Moreover, lateral and posterior surgical approaches are the most frequently chosen approaches for open reduction surgery in displaced SHF when C-arm is unavailable. However, previous literature showed mixed findings regarding functional and cosmetic outcomes. Currently, no systematic review and meta-analysis has compared these two procedures. Methods: Our protocol was registered at PROSPERO (registration number CRD42021213763). We conducted a comprehensive electronic database search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Two independent reviewers screened the title and abstract, followed by full-text reading and study selection based on eligibility criteria. The quality of the selected studies was analyzed with the ROBINS-I tool. Meta-analysis was carried out to compare the range of motion (functional outcome) and cosmetic outcome according to Flynn’s criteria. This systematic review was conducted based on PRISMA and Cochrane handbook guidelines. Results: Our initial search yielded 163 studies, from which we included five comparative studies comprising 231 children in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The lateral approach was more likely to result in excellent (OR 1.69, 95% CI [0.97-2.93]) and good (OR 1.12, 95% CI [0.61-2.04]) functional outcomes and less likely to result in fair (OR 0.84, 95% CI [0.34-2.13]) and poor (OR 0.42, 95% CI [0.1-1.73]) functional outcomes compared to the posterior approach. In terms of cosmetic results, both approaches showed mixed findings. The lateral approach was more likely to result in excellent (OR 1.11, 95% CI [0.61-2.02]) and fair (OR 1.18, 95% CI [0.49-2.80]) but less likely to result in good (OR 0.79, 95% CI [0.40-1.55]) cosmetic outcomes. However, none of these analyses were statistically significant (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Lateral and posterior surgical approaches resulted in satisfactory functional and cosmetic outcomes. The two approaches are comparable for treating SHF in children when evaluated with Flynn’s criteria.
Total thyroidectomy is very common in endocrine surgery and the haemostasis can be obtained in different ways across surgery; recently, some devices have been developed to support this surgical phase. In this paper, a health technology assessment is conducted through the define, measure, analyse, improve, and control cycle of the Six Sigma methodology to compare traditional total thyroidectomy with the surgical operation performed through a new device in an overall population of 104 patients. Length of hospital stay, drain output, and time for surgery were considered the critical to qualities in order to compare the surgical approaches which can be considered equal regarding the organizational, ethical, and security impact. Statistical tests (Kolmogorov–Smirnov, t test, ANOVA, Mann–Whitney, and Kruskal–Wallis tests) and visual management diagrams were employed to compare the approaches, but no statistically significant difference was found between them. Considering these results, this study shows that the introduction of the device to perform total thyroidectomy does not guarantee appreciable clinical advantages. A cost analysis to quantify the economic impact of the device into the practice could be a future development. Healthy policy leaders and clinicians who are requested to make decisions regarding the supply of biomedical technologies could benefit from this research.
Lumbo-sacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are accompanied by changes in soft tissue anatomy. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of LSTV as well as the number of free lumbar vertebrae on surgical approaches of ALIF, OLIF and LLIF at level L4/5.
Material and methods
We assessed the CTs of 819 patients. Of these, 53 had LSTV from which 11 had six (6LV) and 9 four free lumbar vertebrae (4LV). We matched them for sex and age to a control group.
Patients with LSTV had a higher iliac crest and vena cava bifurcation, a greater distance between the common iliac veins and an anterior translation of the psoas muscle at level L4/5. In contrast, patients with 6LV had a lower iliac crest and aortic bifurcation, no differences in vena cava bifurcation and distance between the iliac veins compared to the control group.
For patients with LSTV and five or four free lumbar vertebrae, the LLIF approach at L4/5 may be hindered due to a high riding iliac crest as well as anterior shift of the psoas muscle. Whereas less mobilization and retraction of the iliac veins may reduce the risk of vascular injury at this segment by ALIF and OLIF. For patients with 6LV, a lower relative height of the iliac crest facilitates lateral approach during LLIF. For ALIF and OLIF, a stronger vessel retraction due to the deeper-seated vascular bifurcation is necessary during ALIF and is therefore potentially at higher risk for vascular injury.
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) plays a pivotal role in retinal homeostasis. It is therefore an interesting target to fill the unmet medical need of different retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. RPE replacement therapy may use different cellular sources: induced pluripotent stem cells or embryonic stem cells. Cells can be transferred as suspension on a patch with different surgical approaches. Results are promising although based on very limited samples. In this review, we summarize the current progress of RPE replacement and provide a comparative assessment of different published approaches which may become standard of care in the future.
Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, frequently comminuted, and are without consensus for treatment. The aim of this paper is to review the current concepts on the diagnosis, classification, treatment options, surgical approaches, and complications of capitellar and trochlear fractures. Computed Tomography (CT) scans, along with the Dubberley classification, are extremely helpful in the decision-making process. Most of the fractures necessitate open reduction and internal fixation, although elbow arthroplasty is an option for comminuted fractures in the elderly low-demand patient. Stiffness is the most common complication after fixation, although reoperation is infrequent.