targeted therapies
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2022 ◽  
Juliane Grimm ◽  
Raj Bhayadia ◽  
Lucie Gack ◽  
Dirk Heckl ◽  
Jan-Henning Klusmann

Children with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to developing megakaryoblastic leukemia (ML-DS) and often experience severe toxicities from chemotherapy, highlighting the need for targeted therapies with beneficial risk profiles. The genomic landscape of ML-DS is characterized by a combination of mutations in signaling pathway genes and epigenetic modifiers, while aberrant lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and JAK-STAT activation have both been implicated in leukemogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that combined LSD1 and JAK1/2 inhibition exerts synergistic anti-leukemic effects specifically in ML-DS, both in vitro and in patient derived xenografts in vivo. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib enhanced the LSD1 inhibitor-induced differentiation, proliferation arrest and apoptosis in patient-derived leukemic blasts. At the transcriptional level, the combination synergistically repressed gene expression signatures essential for cell division. We further observed an immunogenic gene expression pattern in the form of increased cytokine signaling, which - by sensitizing ML-DS blasts to the JAK-STAT signaling blockade induced by ruxolitinib - could explain the increased susceptibility of ML-DS blasts to combination therapy. Taken together, we establish combined LSD1 and JAK-STAT inhibition as an efficacious therapeutic regimen specifically designed to target important steps in ML-DS leukemogenesis, paving the way for targeted therapies in this entity.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Sixian Chen ◽  
Aizhen Fu ◽  
Yuan Lu ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Yongfeng Chen ◽  

Abstract Background Lung carcinoma is a common geriatric disease. The development of genotype-targeted therapies greatly improved the management of lung carcinoma. However, the treatment for old patients can be more complex than that for young individuals. Results To investigate the benefits of genetic detection for older patients with lung carcinoma, we explored the genomic profiling of 258 patients with more than 55 years using a targeted next generation sequencing, and some of these patients were treated with targeted therapies based on the results of genomic detection. KRAS codon 61 mutations were found in 15.2% KRAS-mutated patients, which tend to be co-existing with other classical activating mutations other than codons 12/13. Acquired EGFR C797S mutations were identified in 2 cases and ERBB2 amplification was identified in 1 case. All these 3 cases developed resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and showed expected results of their followed therapies. The median progression-free survival and median overall survival of patients treated with molecular targeted therapies were better than those of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy alone. Conclusions Our findings revealed the specific genomic profiles of patients older than 55 years with lung carcinoma and suggested that these old patients have been benefit from the genetic detection, which helped identify druggable mutations and distinguish resistance mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
pp. 088532822110658
Keying Xue ◽  
Bingqing Luo ◽  
Xiaoqing Li ◽  
Weixian Deng ◽  
Chunyan Zeng ◽  

This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of genetic testing using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) instead of tumor tissues in lung adenocarcinoma to break through its limitation. Separation system for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Vimentin expressing CTCs was constructed and used to capture CTCs in the blood samples of 57 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Genetic mutations of genes involved in targeted therapies were detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in tissues from these patients. Blood CTC samples with the gene mutations identified by tissue-NGS were selected and corresponding gene mutations were detected by Sanger sequencing. The specificity of the CTC separation system was 95.48% and the sensitivity was 90.85%. The average number of CTCs in the blood of patients with lung adenocarcinoma was 12.47/7.5 mL. Comparison of the tissue-NGS with the CTC-Sanger sequencing showed that the consistencies of genetic mutations of EGFR ( n = 24), KRAS ( n = 9), TP53 ( n = 19), BRAF ( n = 1), ERBB2 ( n = 2), and PIK3CA ( n = 3) were 92.31%, 75.00%, 86.36%, 50.00%, 66.67%, and 75.00%, with an overall consistency of 84.06%. The CTC separation system established in this study shows high specificity and sensitivity. CTCs can be used as a suitable alternative to tumor tissues that are difficult to obtain in clinical practice and overcome the difficulties in tumor tissue collection, which is of significance in guiding clinical medication and individualized treatment with significant clinical application value in terms of genetic testing for targeted therapies in tumor treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Florence Nguyen-Khac

Although the 17p deletion [del(17p)] is rare in cases of treatment-naive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), its frequency is higher in refractory/relapsed CLL – particularly in patients undergoing chemo(immuno)therapy. TP53 disruption (deletion and/or mutation) is the strongest prognostic factor for refractoriness to chemotherapy; the use of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and BCL2 inhibitors is then indicated. Rare cases of CLL can also harbor translocation or gain of the MYC oncogene. “Double-hit CLL” (with del(17p) and MYC gain) is associated with a very poor prognosis. The prognostic impact of TP53 disruption with MYC aberrations in patients receiving targeted therapies must now be evaluated.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Aditi Bhatt ◽  
Olivier Glehen

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is an incurable disease with over 75% of the patients developing recurrence in the peritoneum. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a promising treatment option for both first-line therapy and treatment of recurrence. In this article, we review the rationale and current evidence for performing HIPEC and the role of HIPEC in the light of targeted systemic therapies. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> There are few randomized trials and several retrospective studies on the role of HIPEC in the management of EOC. A 12-month-overall survival (OS) benefit of the addition of HIPEC to interval cytoreductive surgery (CRS) was demonstrated in 1 randomized trial following which HIPEC has been included as a treatment option for this indication in several national/international guidelines. One retrospective propensity score-matched analysis showed a 16-month OS benefit of adding HIPEC to primary CRS. One randomized trial showed no benefit of the addition of carboplatin HIPEC to secondary CRS over secondary CRS alone. For patients undergoing primary CRS and secondary CRS for recurrence, the results of ongoing randomized trials are needed to define the role of HIPEC in these situations. All clinical trials have shown that the morbidity of HIPEC performed after CRS is acceptable. Along with the emergence of HIPEC as a promising surgical therapy, targeted therapies like bevacizumab and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibitors have been developed that have shown a survival benefit in selected patients. In principle, HIPEC and targeted therapies work in different ways and it is plausible to assume that their benefit could be additive, and their combination should be evaluated in clinical trials. The impact of prognostic factors like the disease extent, pathological response to systemic chemotherapy (SC), the histological subtype and molecular profile on the benefit of HIPEC, and targeted therapies has not been evaluated in clinical trials. <b><i>Key Messages:</i></b> HIPEC is an important therapeutic strategy in the treatment of EOC. While its role in patients undergoing interval CRS has been established, the results of ongoing randomized trials are needed to define its benefit at other time points. The morbidity of HIPEC in addition to CRS is acceptable. More research is needed to define subgroups that benefit most from HIPEC based on the extent of disease, response to SC, histology, and molecular profile. The combination of HIPEC and maintenance therapies should be evaluated in well-designed randomized clinical trials that evaluate not just the survival benefit and morbidity but also the cost-effectiveness of each therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Ian A. MacNeil ◽  
Salmaan A. Khan ◽  
Adrish Sen ◽  
Sajjad M. Soltani ◽  
David J. Burns ◽  

Abstract Background Research is revealing the complex coordination between cell signaling systems as they adapt to genetic and epigenetic changes. Tools to uncover these highly complex functional linkages will play an important role in advancing more efficacious disease treatments. Current tumor cell signal transduction research is identifying coordination between receptor types, receptor families, and transduction pathways to maintain tumor cell viability despite challenging tumor microenvironment conditions. Methods In this report, coactivated abnormal levels of signaling activity for c-Met and HER family receptors in live tumor cells were measured by a new clinical test to identify a subpopulation of breast cancer patients that could be responsive to combined targeted therapies. The CELsignia Multi-Pathway Signaling Function (CELsignia) Test uses an impedance biosensor to quantify an individual patient’s ex vivo live tumor cell signaling response in real-time to specific HER family and c-Met co-stimulation and targeted therapies. Results The test identified breast tumors with hyperactive HER1, HER2, HER3/4, and c-Met coordinated signaling that express otherwise normal amounts of these receptors. The supporting data of the pre-clinical verification of this test included analyses of 79 breast cancer patients’ cell response to HER and c-Met agonists. The signaling results were confirmed using clinically approved matching targeted drugs, and combinations of targeted drugs in addition to correlative mouse xenograft tumor response to HER and c-Met targeted therapies. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated the potential benefit of a functional test for identifying a subpopulation of breast cancer patients with coordinated abnormal HER and c-Met signaling for a clinical trial testing combination targeted therapy.

2022 ◽  
Christopher Nelke ◽  
Marianna Spatola ◽  
Christina B. Schroeter ◽  
Heinz Wiendl ◽  
Jan D. Lünemann

AbstractAutoantibodies are increasingly recognized for their pathogenic potential in a growing number of neurological diseases. While myasthenia gravis represents the prototypic antibody (Ab)-mediated neurological disease, many more disorders characterized by Abs targeting neuronal or glial antigens have been identified over the past two decades. Depletion of humoral immune components including immunoglobulin G (IgG) through plasma exchange or immunoadsorption is a successful therapeutic strategy in most of these disease conditions. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), primarily expressed by endothelial and myeloid cells, facilitates IgG recycling and extends the half-life of IgG molecules. FcRn blockade prevents binding of endogenous IgG to FcRn, which forces these antibodies into lysosomal degradation, leading to IgG depletion. Enhancing the degradation of endogenous IgG by FcRn-targeted therapies proved to be a powerful therapeutic approach in patients with generalized MG and is currently being tested in clinical trials for several other neurological diseases including autoimmune encephalopathies, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and inflammatory neuropathies. This review illustrates mechanisms of FcRn-targeted therapies and appraises their potential to treat neurological diseases.

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