Systems Methodology
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Luke Hughes ◽  
Ian Grant ◽  
Stephen David Patterson

Aim: This study examined the effect of aerobic exercise with and without blood flow restriction on exercise-induced hypoalgesia and endogenous opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Methodology: In a randomised crossover design, pain-free individuals performed 20 min of cycling in four experimental trials: 1) Low intensity aerobic exercise (LI-AE) at 40% V̇O2max; 2) LI-AE with low pressure BFR (BFR40); 3) LI-AE with high pressure BFR (BFR80); and 4) High intensity aerobic exercise (HI-AE) 70% V̇O2max. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed before and 5 min post-exercise. Circulating concentrations of beta-endorphin and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were assessed before and 10 min post-exercise. Results: In the exercising legs, post-exercise PPTs were increased following BFR40 and BFR80 compared to LI-AE (23-32% vs 1-2%, respectively). Post-exercise PPTs were comparable to HI-AE (17-20%) with BFR40 and greater with BFR80 (30-32%). Both BFR80 and HI-AE triggered comparable systemic hypoalgesia in remote areas of the body (26-28% vs 19-21%). Post-exercise circulating beta-endorphin concentration was increased following BFR40 (11%) and HI-AE (14%, with the greatest change observed following BFR80 (29%). Post-exercise circulating 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentration was increased following BFR40 (22%) and BFR80 (20%), with the greatest change observed following HI-AE (57%). Conclusion: Addition of BFR to LI-AE can trigger both local and systemic hypoalgesia that is not observed follow LI-AE alone and activate endogenous opioid and endocannabinoid systems of pain inhibition. Compared to HI-AE, local and systemic hypoalgesia following LI-AE with high pressure BFR is greater and comparable, respectively. LI-AE with BFR may help pain management in load compromised individuals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 33-45
Irina Yuryevna Gutnik ◽  

Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of identifying teachers’ professional deficits in the context of transformation of modern school education. The purpose of this study is to describe a set of diagnostic methods aimed at identifying professional deficits of teachers in the context of transformation of contemporary education, which can be used both by teachers for self-assessment in order to subsequently overcome the detected deficits, and by school leaders to support teachers’ professional growth. Materials and Methods. In order to develop the set of diagnostic methods aimed at revealing teachers’ professional deficits, the author has used the following methods of educational research: conversations, focus-group method, in-depth and narrative interviews, action research, and soft systems methodology. The study involved 25 teachers and 720 students of grades 5-9. Results. The author has clarified the concept of ‘professional deficits’ and analyzed advantages and drawbacks of quantitative methods used in identifying teachers’ professional deficits. The study justifies using the set of diagnostic methods aimed at identifying teachers’ professional deficits in the context of contemporary education. Moreover, it has been proved that the presented evaluation inventory contributes to enhancing teachers’ professional self-assessment and reflection. Conclusions. In conclusion, the author summarizes the research findings about the implementation of the presented evaluation inventory and its contribution to teachers’ continuing professional growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 88-96
Beni Rudiawan ◽  
Amarulla Octavian ◽  
Rizerius Eko Hadi Sancoko ◽  
Wayan Nuriada ◽  
Buddy Suseto ◽  

The problem of the High Social Gap in Papua which is the cause of marginalization and discrimination against the Papuan people, as well as the different perceptions of some Indonesians at home and abroad towards armed separatist conflicts are push factors to corner the Indonesian government. In addition, the issue of internationalization of the 1969 referendum mechanism, violations of Human Rights (HAM), and the management of Natural Resources (SDA) by multinational companies that do not have an impact on improving the welfare of the Papuan people also complement the government's opinion of failure. Against the background of these problems, this study uses a quasi-qualitative research method and an exploratory approach with soft systems methodology (SSM) as a data analysis technique to answer the formulation of the problem and research questions. Research data were collected through Focus Group Discussions (FGD), in-depth interviews, and direct discussions with various informants (academics, practitioners, bureaucracy, and community leaders), plus a literature review as secondary data. The results of this study recommend the development of an Integrated Food Estate (IFE) in stages according to customary areas in Papua, which will indirectly support the realization of Territorial Resilience and the Universal Defense System (Sishta). Furthermore, to ensure that all these processes are carried out properly and continuously, this study recommends the establishment of an Integrated Solution Center (ISC). With the implementation of these recommendations, it is hoped that the peaceful and prosperous Papuan people will soon be realized.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (21) ◽  
pp. 283
Bautista Olivas Ana Laura ◽  
Fernandez David Rene ◽  
Alvarez Chavez Clara Rosalia ◽  
Mexia Sanchez Angel Carlos ◽  
Mendoza Cariño Mayra ◽  

El cambio de uso del suelo con fines agrícolas bajo esquemas de manejo agrícola y uso del agua poco eficientes, originan suelos infértiles. Para el cultivo de hortalizas se estudian técnicas que produzcan altos rendimientos con los menores costos económicos y ambientales. Los objetivos del estudio fueron estimar y comparar el rendimiento de la lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) en los sistemas productivos acuapónico (SA) e hidropónico (SH). La metodología comprendió dos etapas: el establecimiento de los sistemas productivos tipo Nutrition Film Technique (NFT) y el monitoreo del desarrollo del cultivo en ambos sistemas. Las bases de datos y el tratamiento estadístico se realizaron en el programa Excel de Windows Versión 10. La prueba t de student con un nivel de significancia de 0.05 indicó el peso promedio de las lechugas: 0.056 kg (± 0.005 kg) en el SA, y 0.097 kg (± 0.007 kg) en el SH. El SH generó mayor rendimiento (1.847 kg/m2) que el SA (1.080 kg/m2); lo que se atribuyó a que el SH contó con los nutrientes necesarios desde el inicio del cultivo, por la aplicación de fertilizante. La temperatura alta influyó en el comportamiento de los peces del SA, ya que provocaron menor consumo alimenticio y de aporte de desechos orgánicos al agua que, promovieron una baja cantidad de nutrientes y afectaron la producción y el rendimiento del cultivo. Se recomiendan la generación de conocimiento para complementar los resultados obtenidos, como el gasto hídrico y su comparación con los sistemas de cultivo de lechuga tradicionales. Land use change for agriculture under poor farm management and inefficient water use, produces infertile soils. For green vegetable farming, there are some techniques for the achievement of high crop yields with the lowest economic and environmental costs. The study objectives were to estimate and compare lettuce yields (Lactuca sativa L.) in aquaponic (SA) and hydroponic (SH) production systems. Methodology encompassed two stages: the establishing of a Nutrition Film Technique (NFT) productive system and the monitoring of the crop growing in both systems. Database integration and statistical analyses were performed using Windows Excel version 10. Average lettuce weight using t-test (significance level of 0.05) were 0.056 kg (± 0.005 kg) in SA, y 0.097 kg (± 0.007 kg) in SH. SH reached higher yields (1.847 kg/m2) than SA (1.080 kg/m2); likely due to the fact that SH had all needed nutrients since the beginning of the crop, by applying fertilizer. High temperature influenced fish behavior in SA, observing lower food consumption and organic waste supply to the water, releasing low nutrient load that affected crop production and yield. More studies are recommended in order to deepen the outcomes, such as those including water flow and the comparison with conventional lettuce crop systems.

Systems ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 49
Sadaf Salavati ◽  
Anita Mirijamdotter ◽  
Patrik Elm ◽  
Miguel Perez

This paper discusses the coordinated use of the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) learning cycle with additional bodies of knowledge. This approach furthers focused understanding and appreciation for taking action within social systems. Adapting the SSM learning cycle extends the richness of the real-world situation understood from an analytic soft systems perspective to encompass the appreciation of a problematical situation using additional bodies of knowledge to explain and explore. Examples illustrate using SSM to foster learning and improve teaching in a research education practice, in a national level research project and, further, in professional in-service at advanced level education.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-77
Nur Muhammaditya ◽  
Sudarsono Hardjosoekarto

Artikel ini bertujuan menganalisis divergensi aktor-individual dalam pengelolaan bank soal digital menghadapi kebutuhan pemanfaatan big data pada masyarakat era 5.0. Kompleksitas divergensi tata kelola organisasi dilihat dari pendekatan berpikir sistem dimulai dari identifikasi permasalahan, pembuatan model konseptual, serta usulan yang berbasis tindakan secara menyeluruh dari setiap pemangku kepentingan. Ragam metode berpikir sistem yang digunakan berupa Soft Systems Methodology untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian yang menganalisis secara keseluruhan pemikiran, perkataan, dan tindakan pemilikmasalah. Hasil dari pendekatan sistem menunjukkan, transformasi digital di dalam pengelolaan bank soal mengalami hambatan ketercapaian pemanfaatan big data karena adanya divergensi institusional berupa hibridasi tata kelola administrasi publik yang disebabkan oleh mekanisme power, attraction, dan mimesis. Solusi yang dapat dilakukan dalam mendorong percepatan transformasi digital pertama terletak pada aspek power di level makro perlu adanya tata ulang aturan kelembagaan tranformasi digital yang terarahdan spesifik. Kedua pada aspek attraction perlu adanya penguasaan kompetensi bahasa pemrograman, data base enginering, dan data mining di setiap pegawai yang terlibat. Ketiga, pada aspek mimesis, organisasi dapat merujuk pada praktik terbaik keberhasilan organisasi lain. Kesimpulan penelitian menunjukkan terdapat dua belas aktivitas divergensi aktor individual yang menyebabkan hibridasi administrasi publik dan empat di antaranya mendukung perwujudan tranformasi digital. This article aims to analyze the divergence of individual actors in managing digital item banks in facing the needs of using big data in the 5.0 eras. The complexity of divergence in organizational governance captured from the systems thinking approach starting from the problems of making, conceptual models, and based on the overall actions of each stakeholder. Various systems thinking methods are used in the form of Soft Systems Methodology to answer research questions that analyse the overall thoughts, words, andactions of the problem owner. The results of the systems approach show that digital transformation in bank management is experiencing obstacles to achieving the use of big data due to institutional divergences in the form of hybridization in public administration governance caused by power, attractiveness and mimesis. The solution that can be done in encouraging the acceleration of the first digital transformation lies in the aspect of power at the macro level, there is a need for a directed and specific restructuring of the digitaltransformation institutional rules. Second, in the aspect of attraction, it is necessary to master the competence of programming languages, database techniques, and data mining for every employee involved. Third, in the mimetic aspect, organizations can refer to the best practices of other organizations’ success. The conclusion of the study shows that there are twelve individual actor-divergent activities that cause hybridization of public administration and four support the realization of the digital transformation.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Krishna Chaitanya Balthu ◽  
Ben Clegg

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how action research-based interventions can effect change in a complex and challenging professional service environment (Lewis and Brown, 2012). This paper presents a successful way to do this. First, by eliciting factors for change driven by deregulation in the United Kingdom’s (UK) legal service sector (Falconer, 2005). Second, by designing and implementing context-sensitive change in a selected legal service firm.Design/methodology/approachThis research adopts a participatory action research methodology involving the use of systems thinking (namely the PrOH modelling methodology) to design suitable interventions and catalyse change.FindingsThis study has generated new knowledge on three fronts–to the legal service operations, to methodology and to the intellectual framework used for abductive reasoning (Checkland and Poulter, 2006). Lessons are transferable to wider professional service operations research. Findings indicate, despite traditional challenges of delivering typical professional services, there is potential for rationalising processes and service delivery commodification, mainly in the low volume, high variety legal service typology (Silvestro et al., 1992).Research limitations/implicationsThis research uses data from an in-depth study of a single organisation.Practical implicationsThis research helped legal service professionals to improve overall efficiency and effectiveness and create new management tools.Social implicationsThis research could help improve legal service operations and make them more accessible.Originality/valueThis research applies a novel, systems thinking based methodology for the first time in a complex professional service operations environment leading to three-fold contributions in the areas of practice, theory and methodology. The paper uses a change management framework (the Change Kaleidoscope), a soft systems methodology (PrOH modelling) and applies these to legal services.

E. Kalinin ◽  
Y. Kolesnik ◽  
M. Myasushka

Purpose of the study is to assess the possibility of calculating the stability of tractor oscillations as a system with nonlinearities such as dry friction due to the inverse problem. Research methods. The methodological basis of the work is the generalization and analysis of known scientific results regarding the dynamics of two-mass systems in resonance modes and the use of a systematic approach. The analytical method and comparative analysis were used to form a scientific problem, determine the goal and formulate the research objectives. When creating empirical models, the main provisions of the theory of stability of systems, methodology of system analysis and research of operations were used. The results of the study. Oscillations of the system with harmonic excitation by its base are considered (for example, the movement of a tractor on an uneven supporting surface). Oscillations of this system are described by nonlinear differential equations. To solve this equation, instead of friction dampers with friction forces, linear dampers with corresponding drag coefficients are included in the system. By solving the obtained system of linear inhomogeneous differential equations for the steady-state mode of oscillation, the amplitudes of oscillations of masses and deformation of springs with certain stiffness are determined. To clarify the effect of friction forces on mass oscillations in resonance modes, the obtained expressions were analyzed. A diagram of stability of mass oscillations in resonance modes is obtained. Conclusions. It has been established that if the coefficients of relative friction have such values that the point that is determined by them lies within the region bounded by segments 1-2 and 2-3 and coordinate axes, then during oscillations in the low-frequency resonance mode, the friction forces do not limit the increase in amplitudes fluctuations of masses, but only reduce the rate of their growth. If the point, which is determined by the coefficients of relative friction, lies in the region 1-1'-2'-3 '3-2-1, then the springs have intermittent deformation, that is, during the period of oscillation, one mass of the system has stops relative to another mass, or the last has stops relative to the support surface, or both masses move part of the period as a whole with the support surface. At resonance with a high frequency, the friction forces limit the amplitudes of mass oscillations if the coefficients of relative friction have such values that the point that is determined by them does not lie in the region bounded by segments 4-5 and 5-6 and the coordinate axes. Sections 4-5 and 5-6 define the boundaries of vibration stability at resonance (lines of critical ratios of the coefficients of relative friction).

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