functional model
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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 247
Michelle Cristiane Bufalo ◽  
Maíra Estanislau Soares de Almeida ◽  
José Ricardo Jensen ◽  
Carlos DeOcesano-Pereira ◽  
Flavio Lichtenstein ◽  

Increased collagen-derived advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are consistently related to painful diseases, including osteoarthritis, diabetic neuropathy, and neurodegenerative disorders. We have recently developed a model combining a two-dimensional glycated extracellular matrix (ECM-GC) and primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) that mimicked a pro-nociceptive microenvironment. However, culturing primary cells is still a challenge for large-scale screening studies. Here, we characterized a new model using ECM-GC as a stimulus for human sensory-like neurons differentiated from SH-SY5Y cell lines to screen for analgesic compounds. First, we confirmed that the differentiation process induces the expression of neuron markers (MAP2, RBFOX3 (NeuN), and TUBB3 (β-III tubulin), as well as sensory neuron markers critical for pain sensation (TRPV1, SCN9A (Nav1.7), SCN10A (Nav1.8), and SCN11A (Nav1.9). Next, we showed that ECM-GC increased c-Fos expression in human sensory-like neurons, which is suggestive of neuronal activation. In addition, ECM-GC upregulated the expression of critical genes involved in pain, including SCN9A and TACR1. Of interest, ECM-GC induced substance P release, a neuropeptide widely involved in neuroinflammation and pain. Finally, morphine, the prototype opiate, decreased ECM-GC-induced substance P release. Together, our results suggest that we established a functional model that can be useful as a platform for screening candidates for the management of painful conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 (1) ◽  
Satoshi Fujiwara ◽  
Mikio Tobita ◽  
Shinzaburo Ozawa

AbstractPostseismic deformations continue to occur for a long period after major earthquakes. Temporal changes in postseismic deformations can be approximated using simple functions. Since the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, operating global navigation satellite system stations have been continuously accumulating a remarkable amount of relevant data. To verify the functional model, we performed statistical data processing on postseismic deformations due to this earthquake and obtained their spatiotemporal distribution. Moreover, we approximated the postseismic deformations over a relatively wide area with a standard deviation of residuals of 1 cm for approximately 10 years using a combined functional model of two logarithmic and one exponential functions; however, the residuals from the functional model exhibited a marked deviation since 2015. Although the pattern of postseismic deformations remained unaltered after the earthquake, a change in the linear deformation occurred from 2015 to date. We reduced the overall standard deviation of the residuals of > 200 stations distributed over > 1000 km to < 0.4 cm in the horizontal component by enhancing the functional model to incorporate this linear deformation. Notably, time constants of the functions were similarly applicable for all stations and components. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the coefficients of each time constant were nonrandom, and the distribution was spatially smooth, with minute changes in the short wavelengths in space. Thus, it is possible to obtain a gridded model in terms of a spatial function. The spatial distributions of short- and long-period components of the functional model and afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation calculated using the physical model were similar to each other, respectively. Each time function revealed a connotation regarding the physical processes, which provided an understanding of the physical phenomena involved in seismogenesis. The functional model can be used to practical applications, such as discerning small variations and modeling for precise positioning. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Durgesh Nandinee ◽  
Suvashisa Rana ◽  
Naga Seema

PurposeThe objectives of the study were to explore the lived experiences of adolescents for understanding the process of their flourishing and develop a functional model to explain the dynamics of flourishing during adolescence.Design/methodology/approachGuided by the qualitative approach, the authors used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to explore how various factors affect the process of flourishing during adolescence. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 10 adolescents to collect qualitative data.FindingsA total of eight boosters (four internal and four external) and seven barriers (five internal and two external) emerged. The results highlighted the importance of a functional model that explained the dynamics of adolescents' flourishing. Though the authors conceded that the presence of boosters and absence of barriers were instrumental in enhancing flourishing during adolescence, based on the extant literature, the authors assumed the existence and operation of other intra-individual and inter-individual factors or correlates.Research limitations/implicationsFirst, the study participants are school-going adolescents living in a supported urban family environment where expectations to study and achieve are an important cultural component. Second, the study has focussed on the participants belonging to late adolescence—a transitional phase to emerging adulthood.Practical implicationsThere are three implications of the study—theoretical (conceptualisation of a functional model), practical (construction of a new measure of flourishing) and clinical (designing intervention programmes to enhance positive living in adolescents).Originality/valueThe study has provided a deeper insight into adolescents' flourishing from insiders' perspectives using the framework of IPA and discovered and elaborated a functional model of adolescents' flourishing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (4) ◽  
pp. 137-153
Mirosław Nader ◽  
Ilona Jacyna-Gołda ◽  
Stanisław Nader ◽  
Karol Nehring

The use of popular brain–computer interfaces (BCI) to analyze signals and the behavior of brain activity is a very current problem that is often undertaken in various aspects by many researchers. This comparison turns out to be particularly useful when studying the flows of information and signals in the human-machine-environment system, especially in the field of transportation sciences. This article presents the results of a pilot study of driver behavior with the use of a proprietary simulator based on Virtual Reality technology. The study uses the technology of studying signals emitted by the human mind and its specific zones in response to given environmental factors. A solution based on virtual reality with the limitation of external stimuli emitted by the real world was proposed, and computational analysis of the obtained data was performed. The research focused on traffic situations and how they affect the subject. The test was attended by representatives of various age groups, both with and without a driving license. This study presents an original functional model of a research stand in VR technology that we designed and built. Testing in VR conditions allows to limit the influence of undesirable external stimuli that may distort the results of readings. At the same time, it increases the range of road events that can be simulated without generating any risk for the participant. In the presented studies, the BCI was used to assess the driver's behavior, which allows for the activity of selected brain waves of the examined person to be registered. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to study the activity of brain and its response to stimuli coming from the Virtual Reality created environment. Electrical activity detection is possible thanks to the use of electrodes placed on the skin in selected areas of the skull. The structure of the proprietary test-stand for signal and information flow simulation tests, which allows for the selection of measured signals and the method of parameter recording, is presented. An important part of this study is the presentation of the results of pilot studies obtained in the course of real research on the behavior of a car driver.

М.В. Петровская ◽  
А.С. Желтухина ◽  
В.В. Тимошенко

Проблема сохранения здоровья была и будет стратегически важной в любом социуме. Не являются исключением и Вооруженные силы. Актуальность статьи обусловлена необходимостью поиска эффективных путей сохранения здоровья субъектов образовательного процесса в военном вузе. Авторами предложена структурно-функциональная модель развития готовности к реализации здоровьесберегающей деятельности в образовательном процессе военного вуза. Обосновано выделение аксиологического, когнитивного, эмоционального и конатативного компонентов в структуре готовности. Охарактеризованы уровни сформированности готовности к реализации здоровьесберегающей деятельности (базово-атрибутивный, репродуктивно-эвристический, продуктивно-креативный). Предложены психолого-педагогические условия, способствующие развитию готовности к реализации здоровьесберегающей деятельности. Эмпирически доказано, что психологическая культура является одной из детерминант развития готовности к реализации здоровьетворчества. Статья предназначена для специалистов в сфере психолого-педагогического сопровождения образовательного процесса, преподавателей и научных сотрудников военных вузов, курсантов, слушателей и адъюнктов, интересующихся проблемами личностного роста, сохранения и укрепления здоровья. The problem of preserving health has been and will be strategically important in any society. The Armed Forces are no exception. The relevance of the article is due to the need to find effective ways to preserve the health of subjects of the educational process in a military university. The authors proposed a structural and functional model for the development of readiness for the implementation of health-saving activities in the educational process of a military university. The axiological, cognitive, emotional and conatative components in the readiness structure are thoroughly described. The levels of readiness for realization of health-saving activities (basic-attributive, reproductive-heuristic, productive-creative) are presented. The authors also propose psychological and pedagogical conditions that contribute to the development of readiness for the implementation of health-saving activities. The research empirically proves that psychological culture is one of the determinants of the development of readiness for the realization of health-creating. The article is intended for specialists in the field of psychological and pedagogical support of the educational process, teachers and researchers of military universities, cadets, students and adjuncts interested in the problems of personal growth, preservation and health promotion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 683-689
Oleksandr Polishchuk ◽  
Yulia Bobrova ◽  
Yuriy Bobrov

Today, the issue of creating conditions for homeland security is relevant, under which any socio-economic system can be comfortable and is not threatened by the negative influence of any external and internal factors. The main purpose of the study is to form a methodological approach to the formation of an appropriate defense ecosystem in the context of ensuring homeland security. To achieve this goal, we applied analysis and synthesis methods to study the current state of the homeland security level and the methodology for the formation of the IDEF0 functional model to represent the proposed defense ecosystem. The methodological approach can have the practical importance for state structures dealing with the issue of ensuring homeland security. The result of the study was the formation of a decomposition of the first, second and third levels of the functional model of the defense ecosystem in the context of ensuring homeland security. The article has limitations which are associated with the choice of the security system of Ukraine, since in the context of a pandemic, it was difficult to gain access to information from other countries. In the future, the proposed methodological approach is planned to be applied to the homeland security systems of other countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (6-2) ◽  
pp. 145-153
A. A. Komanenko ◽  
M. V. Avdeeva ◽  
T. Yu. Garifullin ◽  
V. N. Filatov

Background. Improving organizational technologies for early detection of cancer using targeted programs for large-scale cancer screening is a priority task of primary health care.The aim: to assess the potential of lean technologies to optimize cancer screening during periodic health examination of the adult population.Materials and methods. To develop an optimal organizational and functional model of cancer screening, a working group was created; information about the current state of the process was collected.Results. A comprehensive analysis of the state of the process revealed the following problems: violation of the algorithms of oncological screening at stage 1 of periodic health examination (13.8 %); cases of non-completion of stage 2 of periodic health examination by patients with suspected colon cancer (20.4 %); queues for endoscopic examinations (14 days) and, as a consequence, not a quick visit to the oncologist of the primary oncology department (17–18 days). After optimization of the periodic health examination: there is no queue for endoscopy for patients with suspected oncopathology; accelerated access of patients with suspected oncopathology to the oncologist of the primary oncology department (from 17–18 to 5 days; p < 0.01). Increased awareness of patients about the rules for preparing for endoscopic examination and a reminder of the date and time of the upcoming endoscopy, there was an increase in the number of patients who completed stage 2 of health examination to exclude/confirm oncopathology (from 79.6 to 90 %; p < 0.05). The frequency of violations by doctors of the oncological screening algorithm decreased from 13.8 to 2.3 % (p < 0.01).Conclusion. The use of lean manufacturing marketing strategies in primary health care has helped to identify, eliminate and control the causes of problems during the first and second stages of clinical examination of patients with suspected oncopathology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 63-76
S. Odoevsky ◽  
V. Kluychnikov ◽  
I. Stepanets

The article describes the model of the communication network functioning, which consist of microwave link stations with adaptive modulation and packet switching. Mathematical expressions are presented, which allow to calculate particular indicators of stability and throughput of microwave link intervals, lines and communication directions, as well as generalized quality indicators of the communication network as a whole, taking into account the peculiarities of the functioning of microwave link stations with adaptive modulation and packet switching under the fading conditions at separate microwave link intervals.

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