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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Shih-Chia Huang ◽  
Quoc-Viet Hoang ◽  
Da-Wei Jaw

Despite the recent improvement of object detection techniques, many of them fail to detect objects in low-luminance images. The blurry and dimmed nature of low-luminance images results in the extraction of vague features and failure to detect objects. In addition, many existing object detection methods are based on models trained on both sufficient- and low-luminance images, which also negatively affect the feature extraction process and detection results. In this article, we propose a framework called Self-adaptive Feature Transformation Network (SFT-Net) to effectively detect objects in low-luminance conditions. The proposed SFT-Net consists of the following three modules: (1) feature transformation module, (2) self-adaptive module, and (3) object detection module. The purpose of the feature transformation module is to enhance the extracted feature through unsupervisely learning a feature domain projection procedure. The self-adaptive module is utilized as a probabilistic module producing appropriate features either from the transformed or the original features to further boost the performance and generalization ability of the proposed framework. Finally, the object detection module is designed to accurately detect objects in both low- and sufficient- luminance images by using the appropriate features produced by the self-adaptive module. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SFT-Net framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art object detection techniques, achieving an average precision (AP) of up to 6.35 and 11.89 higher on the sufficient- and low- luminance domain, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 154 ◽  
pp. 111854
Mohammed Ali Khan ◽  
Ahteshamul Haque ◽  
V.S. Bharath Kurukuru ◽  
Mekhilef Saad

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112488
Mintu Pal ◽  
Thingreila Muinao ◽  
Hari Prasanna Deka Boruah ◽  
Neeraj Mahindroo

Sonal Yadav

Abstract: is a kind of malignant programming (malware) that takes steps to distribute or hinders admittance to information or a PC framework, for the most part by scrambling it, until the casualty pays a payoff expense to the assailant. As a rule, the payoff request accompanies a cutoff time. Assuming that the casualty doesn't pay on schedule, the information is gone perpetually or the payoff increments. Presently days and assailants executed new strategies for effective working of assault. In this paper, we center around ransomware network assaults and study of discovery procedures for deliver product assault. There are different recognition methods or approaches are accessible for identification of payment product assault. Keywords: Network Security, Malware, Ransomware, Ransomware Detection Techniques

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Amin Nikanjam ◽  
Houssem Ben Braiek ◽  
Mohammad Mehdi Morovati ◽  
Foutse Khomh

Nowadays, we are witnessing an increasing demand in both corporates and academia for exploiting Deep Learning ( DL ) to solve complex real-world problems. A DL program encodes the network structure of a desirable DL model and the process by which the model learns from the training dataset. Like any software, a DL program can be faulty, which implies substantial challenges of software quality assurance, especially in safety-critical domains. It is therefore crucial to equip DL development teams with efficient fault detection techniques and tools. In this article, we propose NeuraLint , a model-based fault detection approach for DL programs, using meta-modeling and graph transformations. First, we design a meta-model for DL programs that includes their base skeleton and fundamental properties. Then, we construct a graph-based verification process that covers 23 rules defined on top of the meta-model and implemented as graph transformations to detect faults and design inefficiencies in the generated models (i.e., instances of the meta-model). First, the proposed approach is evaluated by finding faults and design inefficiencies in 28 synthesized examples built from common problems reported in the literature. Then NeuraLint successfully finds 64 faults and design inefficiencies in 34 real-world DL programs extracted from Stack Overflow posts and GitHub repositories. The results show that NeuraLint effectively detects faults and design issues in both synthesized and real-world examples with a recall of 70.5% and a precision of 100%. Although the proposed meta-model is designed for feedforward neural networks, it can be extended to support other neural network architectures such as recurrent neural networks. Researchers can also expand our set of verification rules to cover more types of issues in DL programs.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 538
Jiale Gao ◽  
Nuoya Liu ◽  
Xiaomeng Zhang ◽  
En Yang ◽  
Yuzhu Song ◽  

Amanita poisoning is one of the most deadly types of mushroom poisoning. α-Amanitin is the main lethal toxin in amanita, and the human-lethal dose is about 0.1 mg/kg. Most of the commonly used detection techniques for α-amanitin require expensive instruments. In this study, the α-amanitin aptamer was selected as the research object, and the stem-loop structure of the original aptamer was not damaged by truncating the redundant bases, in order to improve the affinity and specificity of the aptamer. The specificity and affinity of the truncated aptamers were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and the affinity and specificity of the aptamers decreased after truncation. Therefore, the original aptamer was selected to establish a simple and specific magnetic bead-based enzyme linked immunoassay (MELISA) method for α-amanitin. The detection limit was 0.369 μg/mL, while, in mushroom it was 0.372 μg/mL and in urine 0.337 μg/mL. Recovery studies were performed by spiking urine and mushroom samples with α-amanitin, and these confirmed the desirable accuracy and practical applicability of our method. The α-amanitin and aptamer recognition sites and binding pockets were investigated in an in vitro molecular docking environment, and the main binding bases of both were T3, G4, C5, T6, T7, C67, and A68. This study truncated the α-amanitin aptamer and proposes a method of detecting α-amanitin.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 577
Belema P. Alalibo ◽  
Bing Ji ◽  
Wenping Cao

Multiple techniques continue to be simultaneously utilized in the condition monitoring and fault detection of electric machines, as there is still no single technique that provides an all-round solution to fault finding in these machines. Having various machine fault-detection techniques is useful in allowing the ability to combine two or more in a manner that will provide a more comprehensive application-dependent condition-monitoring solution; especially, given the increasing role these machines are expected to play in man’s transition to a more sustainable environment, where many more electric machines will be required. This paper presents a novel non-invasive optical fiber using a stray flux technique for the condition monitoring and fault detection of induction machines. A giant magnetostrictive transducer, made of terfenol-D, was bonded onto a fiber Bragg grating, to form a composite FBG-T sensor, which utilizes the machines’ stray flux to determine the internal condition of the machine. Three machine conditions were investigated: healthy, broken rotor, and short circuit inter-turn fault. A tri-axial auto-data-logging flux meter was used to obtain stray magnetic flux measurements, and the numerical results obtained with LabView were analyzed in MATLAB. The optimal positioning and sensitivity of the FBG-T sensor were found to be transverse and 19.3810 pm/μT, respectively. The experimental results showed that the FBG-T sensor accurately distinguished each of the three machine conditions using a different order of magnitude of Bragg wavelength shifts, with the most severe fault reaching wavelength shifts of hundreds of picometres (pm) compared to the healthy and broken rotor conditions, which were in the low-to-mid-hundred and high-hundred picometre (pm) range, respectively. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, performed on the measured stray flux, revealed that the spectral content of the stray flux affected the magnetostrictive behavior of the magnetic dipoles of the terfenol-D transducer, which translated into strain on the fiber gratings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Saad Al-Ahmadi

Phishing websites have grown more recently than ever, and they become more intelligent, even against well-designed phishing detection techniques. Formerly, we have proposed in the literature a state-of-the-art URL-exclusive phishing detection solution based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model, which we referred as PUCNN model. Phishing detection is adversarial as the phisher may attempt to avoid the detection. This adversarial nature makes standard evaluations less useful in predicting model performance in such adversarial situations. We aim to improve PUCNN by addressing the adversarial nature of phishing detection with a restricted adversarial scenario, as PUCNN has shown that an unrestricted attacker dominates. To evaluate this adversarial scenario, we present a parameterized text-based mutation strategy used for generating adversarial samples. These parameters tune the attacker’s restrictions. We have focused on text-based mutation due to our focus on URL-exclusive models. The PUCNN model generally showed robustness and performed well when the parameters were low, which indicates a more restricted attacker.

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