indirect effects
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fengjuan Niu

The digital transformation has impacted society at different levels, mainly on the economic and governance levels. This paper investigates the impact of the digital economy on social governance mechanisms. Additionally, it captures the indirect effects or mediating forces such as social reforms and a sustainable digital economy. The study followed a positivism philosophy, and it is survey research influencing cross-sectional study. The unit of analysis in the current paper was employees from four different professions as economists, financial analysts, managers, and teachers. The random sampling technique was used as a sampling type, and a questionnaire was used for data collection. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was carried out as a data analysis technique. The research findings revealed that the digital economy has a favorable impact on the social governance mechanism. Likewise, the digital economy positively affects social reforms and a sustainable digital economy. Social reforms also proved to link with a sustainable digital economy positively. The output of the indirect effects and structural model confirmed that social reform played a partial mediation role between the digital economy and sustainable digital economy. Moreover, a sustainable digital economy confirmed a partial mediation between the digital economy and the social governance mechanism. Finally, analysis confirmed a serial mediation among digital economy, social reforms, sustainable digital economy, and social governance mechanism. Therefore, policymakers and government agents should improve the digital economy to have a strong social governance mechanism.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-50
Emre Amasyalı

Abstract A significant literature demonstrates that the presence of historic missionary societies—especially Protestant societies—during the colonial period is significantly and positively associated with increased educational attainment and economic outcomes. However, we know less about the mechanisms underlying the long-run consequences of institutions, as it is commonly very hard to disentangle direct effects from indirect effects. One clear way to do so, however, is to explore the long-term impact of missionary influence in places in which the direct beneficiaries of missionary education are no longer present. The present article considers one such region, the Anatolian region of the Ottoman Empire. Due to the ethnic violence and population movements at the start of the twentieth century, the newfound Turkish nation-state was largely religiously homogenous. This provides us with a unique situation to empirically assess the long-run indirect effects of Christian missionary societies on local human capital. For this purpose, I present an original dataset that provides the locations of Protestant mission stations and schools, Ottoman state-run schools, and Armenian community schools contained within Ottoman Anatolia between 1820 and 1914. Contrary to the common association found in the literature, this study does not find missionary presence to be correlated with modern-day schooling. Rather, I find that regions with a heightened missionary presence and an active Christian educational market perform better on the gender parity index for pretertiary schooling during both the Ottoman and Turkish periods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Lenka Schnaubert ◽  
Sascha Schneider

Cognitive load theory assumes effort may only lead to comprehension if the material-induced load leaves enough resources for learning processes. Therefore, multimedia materials should induce as little non-relevant load as possible. Metacognition research assumes that learners tap into their memory processes to generate a mental representation of their comprehension to regulate learning. However, when judging their comprehension, learners need to make inferences about actual understanding using cues such as their experienced mental load and effort during learning. Theoretical assumptions would assume both to affect understanding and its metacognitive representation (metacomprehension). However, the question remains how perceived effort and load are related to metacomprehension judgments while learning with multimedia learning material. Additionally, it remains unclear if this varies under different conditions of multimedia design. To better understand the relationship between perceived mental load and effort and comprehension and metacomprehension under different design conditions of multimedia material, we conducted a randomised between-subjects study (N = 156) varying the design of the learning material (text-picture integrated, split attention, active integration). Mediation analyses testing for both direct and indirect effects of mental load and effort on metacomprehension judgments showed various effects. Beyond indirect effects via comprehension, both mental load and effort were directly related to metacomprehension, however, this seems to vary under different conditions of multimedia design, at least for mental effort. As the direction of effect can only be theoretically assumed, but was not empirically tested, follow-up research needs to identify ways to manipulate effort and load perceptions without tinkering with metacognitive processes directly. Despite the limitations due to the correlative design, this research has implications for our understanding of cognitive and metacognitive processes during learning with multimedia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Silje Støle Brokke ◽  
Thomas Bjerregaard Bertelsen ◽  
Nils Inge Landrø ◽  
Vegard Øksendal Haaland

Abstract Background Suicide attempt is the most predictive risk factor of suicide. Trauma – especially sexual abuse – is a risk factor for suicide attempt and suicide. A common reaction to sexual abuse is dissociation. Higher levels of dissociation are linked to self-harm, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt, but the role of dissociation in suicidal behavior is unclear. Methods In this naturalistic study, ninety-seven acute psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation, of whom 32 had experienced sexual abuse, were included. Suicidal behaviour was assessed with The Columbia suicide history form (CSHF). The Brief trauma questionnaire (BTQ) was used to identify sexual abuse. Dissociative symptoms were assessed with Dissociative experiences scale (DES). Results Patients who had experienced sexual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation and were younger at onset of suicidal thoughts, more likely to self-harm, and more likely to have attempted suicide; and they had made more suicide attempts. Mediation analysis found dissociative experiences to significantly mediate a substantive proportion of the relationship between sexual abuse and number of suicide attempts (indirect effects = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.28, proportion mediated = 68%). Dissociative experiences significantly mediated the role of sexual abuse as a predictor of being in the patient group with more than four suicide attempts (indirect effects = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.19, proportion mediated = 34%). Conclusion The results illustrate the importance of assessment and treatment of sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms such as dissociation in suicide prevention. Dissociation can be a contributing factor to why some people act on their suicidal thoughts.

Mindfulness ◽  
2022 ◽  
Rainbow T. H. Ho ◽  
Ted C. T. Fong ◽  
Adrian H. Y. Wan

Abstract Objectives Colorectal cancer survivors are at risks of emotional distress and dysregulated diurnal cortisol rhythms. Dispositional self-compassion has been linked with better psychological adjustment and greater positive affect. This study evaluated the associations between self-compassion and the diurnal cortisol pattern, and the role of positive affect and emotional distress in mediating this association, in cancer patients. Methods This longitudinal study recruited 127 Chinese colorectal cancer survivors, who completed assessments for self-compassion, positive affect, emotional distress, and naturalistic salivary cortisol at baseline. The participants completed follow-up assessments for affect and emotional distress after 2 months (time 2) and the diurnal cortisol pattern after 8 months (time 3). Bootstrapped mediation analysis analyzed the direct and indirect effects of self-compassion on the diurnal cortisol pattern via positive affect and emotional distress. Results A structural equation model with latent factors of self-compassion, self-criticism, and emotional distress provided an adequate fit to the data. The direct effects of self-compassion and self-criticism on the diurnal cortisol pattern were not significant (p = 0.11–0.50). Positive affect, but not emotional distress, at time 2 significantly predicted steeper diurnal cortisol slopes at time 3 (β = − 0.22, SE = 0.08, p < 0.01). Self-compassion and self-criticism showed significant negative and positive indirect effects on time 3 diurnal cortisol slopes via time 2 positive affect, respectively. Conclusions Our findings support indirect linkages between self-compassion and steeper diurnal cortisol slopes via positive affect. Positive affect may mediate temporal relationships between self-compassion and neuroendocrine functioning in colorectal cancer survivors.

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