executive function
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2022 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 104166
Author(s):  
Victoria Perry ◽  
Katherine Ellis ◽  
Jo Moss ◽  
Sarah R. Beck ◽  
Gursharan Singla ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 214 ◽  
pp. 105306
Author(s):  
Dieuwer ten Braak ◽  
Ragnhild Lenes ◽  
David J. Purpura ◽  
Sara A. Schmitt ◽  
Ingunn Størksen

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 193-206
Author(s):  
Dani Kusuma ◽  
Wardono Wardono ◽  
Adi Nur

<p style="text-align: justify;">Literacy ability is an individual's ability to reason, formulate, solve, and interpret mathematically to solve problems related to daily life. Executive function is a cognitive aspect that has a relation with mathematical literacy. One of some aspects that affects the low mathematical literacy ability is the aspect of executive function. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of mathematical literacy based on the executive function aspects of 15 years old students. A qualitative method with a descriptive approach is employed in this study. The present research applies interview guidelines, questionnaires, and students' mathematical literacy tests as the instruments. Research subjects are junior high school students in grade VIII from two different schools. The result shows that the students' executive function influences mathematical literacy ability. Students' mathematical literacy ability is not fully achieved by fulfilling all the indicators involved. Another aspect found in the research is the low critical thinking ability impacts the achievement of mathematical literacy ability indicators.</p>


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gada Musa Salech ◽  
Patricia Lillo ◽  
Karin van der Hiele ◽  
Carolina Méndez-Orellana ◽  
Agustín Ibáñez ◽  
...  

Background: The cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits present in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are associated with loss of functionality in the activities of daily living (ADLs). The main purpose of this study was to examine and explore the association between the cognitive and neuropsychiatric features that might prompt functional impairment of basic, instrumental, and advanced ADL domains in patients with bvFTD.Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 27 patients with bvFTD in its early stage (&lt;2 years of evolution) and 32 healthy control subjects. A neuropsychological assessment was carried out wherein measures of cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms were obtained. The informant-report Technology–Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire was used to assess the percentage of functional impairment in the different ADL domains. To identify the best determinants, three separate multiple regression analyses were performed, considering each functional impairment as the dependent variable and executive function, emotion recognition, disinhibition, and apathy as independent variables.Results: For the basic ADLs, a model that explains 28.2% of the variability was found, in which the presence of apathy (β = 0.33, p = 0.02) and disinhibition (β = 0.29, p = 0.04) were significant factors. Concerning instrumental ADLs, the model produced accounted for 63.7% of the functional variability, with the presence of apathy (β = 0.71, p &lt; 0.001), deficits in executive function (β = −0.36, p = 0.002), and lack of emotion recognition (β = 0.28, p = 0.017) as the main contributors. Finally, in terms of advanced ADLs, the model found explained 52.6% of the variance, wherein only the presence of apathy acted as a significant factor (β = 0.59, p &lt; 0.001).Conclusions: The results of this study show the prominent and transverse effect of apathy in the loss of functionality throughout all the ADL domains. Apart from that, this is the first study that shows that the factors associated with loss of functionality differ according to the functional domain in patients with bvFTD in its early stage. Finally, no other study has analyzed the impact of the lack of emotion recognition in the functionality of ADLs. These results could guide the planning of tailored interventions that might enhance everyday activities and the improvement of quality of life.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shuxian Chen ◽  
Jinglong Yu ◽  
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
...  

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Multiple cognitive training appeared to be more effective than working memory training, but the evidence remains insufficient, particularly for the subgroup symptoms and executive function behaviors at home. Further analysis of the impact of factors on the effectiveness would facilitate the development of cognitive training.Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Psyche, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, CNKI, and Weifang Database, and included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of children with ADHD undergoing cognitive intervention. Metaanalysis and univariate metaregression were performed by STATE. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool 2.0 by the two investigators separately. This study was registered with INPLASY, number INPLASY202140065.Results: We included 17 RCTs in the systematic review, with a combined 1,075 participants. For metaanalyses of both subgroups of ADHD symptoms and the executive function behaviors, the test of published bias failed to reach the p &lt; 0.05 level. When all of the training are considered together, cognitive training can improve the presentation of inattention symptoms [SMD = −0.390, 95%CI (−0.675, −0.104)] and executive function behaviors (SMD = −0.319, 95%CI (−0.527, −0.111)]. In the subgroup analysis, the effects of working memory training on both presentations were not statistically significant. In contrast, the multiple cognitive training had significant effects on the presentation of inattention symptoms [SMD = −0.507, 95% CI (−0.722, −0.292)], hyperactivity/impulsivity [SMD = −0.305, 95% CI (−0.518, −0.09)], and the executive function behaviors [SMD = −0.499, 95%CI (−0.707, −0.290)]. In addition, metaregression analysis showed that only training frequency did significantly impact the symptoms of ADHD and the executive function behaviors.Conclusion: This study showed that improvements in symptoms and executive function behaviors were related to the domains of cognitive intervention. The findings suggest that multiple domains of cognitive training and moderate training frequency may have wider clinical benefits. All the above results highlight further research in refining the executive functions of children with ADHD and developing individually tailored cognitive intervention on homes based for children with vulnerable executive functions.Systematic Review Registration: [http://inplasy.com/], [INPLASY202140065].


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sabrina M.I Burton ◽  
Hannah M Sallis ◽  
Alexander S Hatoum ◽  
Marcus R Munafo ◽  
Zoe E Reed

Background: Executive function consists of several cognitive control processes that are able to regulate lower level processes. Poorer performance in tasks designed to test executive function is associated with a range of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety, as well as with smoking and alcohol consumption. Despite these well-documented associations, whether they reflect causal relationships, and if so in what direction, remains unclear. We aimed to establish whether there is a causal relationship between a latent factor for performance on multiple executive function tasks - which we refer to as common executive function (cEF) - and liability to schizophrenia, MDD, anxiety, smoking initiation, alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and cannabis use disorder (CUD), and the directionality of any relationship observed. Methods: We used a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data from large cohorts (N=17,310 to 848,460) to examine whether causal relationships exist, and if so in which direction. Results: We found evidence of a causal effect of increased cEF on reduced schizophrenia liability (IVW: OR=0.10; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.19; p-value=3.43x10-12), reduced MDD liability (IVW: OR=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72; p-value=5.23x10-05), decreased drinks per week (IVW: β=-0.06; 95% CI -0.10 to -0.02; p-value=0.003), and reduced CUD liability (IVW: OR=0.27; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.61; p-value=1.58x10-03). We also found evidence of a causal effect of increased schizophrenia liability on decreased cEF (IVW: β=-0.04; 95% CI -0.04 to -0.03; p-value=3.25x10-27), as well as smoking initiation on decreased cEF (IVW: β=-0.06; 95%CI -0.09 to -0.03; p-value=6.11x10-05). Conclusion: Our results indicate a potential bidirectional causal relationship between a latent factor measure of executive function (cEF) and schizophrenia liability, a possible causal effect of increased cEF on reduced MDD liability, CUD liability, and alcohol consumption, and a possible causal effect of smoking initiation on decreased cEF. These results suggest that executive function should be considered as a potential risk factor for some mental health and substance use outcomes, and may also be impacted by mental health (particularly schizophrenia). Further studies are required to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these effects, but our results suggest that executive function may be a promising intervention target. These results may therefore inform the prioritisation of experimental medicine studies (e.g., of executive function interventions), for both mental health and substance use outcomes, to improve the likelihood of successful translation.


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