Positive Affect
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Tze Wei Liew ◽  
Wei Ming Pang ◽  
Meng Chew Leow ◽  
Su-Mae Tan

AbstractEmotional design refers to imbuing a multimedia learning environment with design attributes that promote learners’ positive affect and motivation to enhance learning. One such feature is anthropomorphism, in which human-like attributes are infused into learning elements in a multimedia learning environment. This study examines the affective, motivational, and cognitive effects of incorporating cute and funny human-like images and dialogues into learning objects depicting malware, bots, and servers in an animation conveying a lesson on how a distributed denial-of-service attack occurs. A between-subjects online experiment was conducted in which undergraduates from a large Asian university (n = 70) engaged with either the anthropomorphized or non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. The findings partially supported the anthropomorphism effects on learners’ affective-motivational states insofar as the anthropomorphized multimedia lesson evoked a significantly greater change of positive affect but did not differently affect intrinsic motivation and learning outcome than the non-anthropomorphized version. Concerning cognitive load, anthropomorphism led to significantly lower perceived difficulty regarding the learning topic (intrinsic load), which conforms with most emotional design findings. There was a marginal trend in which learners engaged longer with the anthropomorphized than the non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. This study offers insights on anthropomorphism in multimedia learning that extends to cultural factors unique to Asian learners and information technology subject domain. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed through the lens of cognitive-affective theory of learning with media, integrated cognitive affective model of learning with multimedia, and cognitive load theory. Future directions concerning anthropomorphism research in the multimedia learning context are addressed in this paper.

Yifan Duan ◽  
Shuhua Li

We investigated the effects on humans, in terms of skin conductance levels (SCLs) and positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) scores, of plant communities that differed in their vegetation structure (single-layer woodland, tree-shrub-grass composite woodland, tree-grass composite woodland, and single-layer grassland) through two perceptual methods: onsite surveying and photo elicitation. The results showed that (1) the choice of perception method significantly impacted the PANAS scores of the participants but had no influence on the SCL and (2) viewing a single-layer grassland reduced the SCL (representing the physiological stress level) and improved the positive affect score. The recovery effects for the four vegetation communities were ranked in the order of single-layer grassland > tree-shrub-grass composite woodland > single-layer woodland > tree-grass composite woodland. (3) Gender and professional background significantly impacted the plant community perception methods and landscape experience, and negative affect scores were lower for male participants than for female participants. Participants without backgrounds in landscape design exhibited higher positive affect scores under photo elicitation. Based on the conclusions drawn above, the onsite survey is preferable between the two perception methods. It is recommended that in future landscape designs, combinations of plant community types should be reasonably matched through onsite perception. These research results can provide a scientific basis for the future design of landscapes based on perception experience.

Family Forum ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 267-286
Dariusz Krok

The examination of the psychological functioning of cancer patients’ spouses implies that affect and personal resources play an important role in their psychological well-being. This is a consequence of the severe stress caused by the medical conditions of a spouse and of responsibilities related to caregiving. This study aimed to examine the role of affect and purpose-oriented personal resources (meaning in life and self-efficacy) in shaping psychological well-being in the spouses of cancer patients. The participants were 214 spouses of gastrointestinal patients who were either undergoing medical treatment in hospital units or attending scheduled clinic appointments at outpatient medical clinics. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X), Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were used. The results indicated that positive affect was positively correlated with meaning in life, self-efficacy, and psychological well-being. In contrast, negative affect was negatively correlated with positive affect, meaning in life, self-efficacy, and psychological well-being. The mediation analyses demonstrated that meaning in life and self-efficacy were mediators between positive and negative affect and psychological well-being. The mediating function of meaning in life and self-efficacy revealed the significant role of personal resources based on purpose and self-motivation in the relationship between affect and psychological well-being. Positive and negative affect can influence motivational processes that enable patients and their families to constructively deal with challenging and illness-related situations. Caregivers and medical staff could take into account the important role of purpose-oriented resources as they affect the functioning of both patients and their families.

Mindfulness ◽  
2022 ◽  
Rainbow T. H. Ho ◽  
Ted C. T. Fong ◽  
Adrian H. Y. Wan

Abstract Objectives Colorectal cancer survivors are at risks of emotional distress and dysregulated diurnal cortisol rhythms. Dispositional self-compassion has been linked with better psychological adjustment and greater positive affect. This study evaluated the associations between self-compassion and the diurnal cortisol pattern, and the role of positive affect and emotional distress in mediating this association, in cancer patients. Methods This longitudinal study recruited 127 Chinese colorectal cancer survivors, who completed assessments for self-compassion, positive affect, emotional distress, and naturalistic salivary cortisol at baseline. The participants completed follow-up assessments for affect and emotional distress after 2 months (time 2) and the diurnal cortisol pattern after 8 months (time 3). Bootstrapped mediation analysis analyzed the direct and indirect effects of self-compassion on the diurnal cortisol pattern via positive affect and emotional distress. Results A structural equation model with latent factors of self-compassion, self-criticism, and emotional distress provided an adequate fit to the data. The direct effects of self-compassion and self-criticism on the diurnal cortisol pattern were not significant (p = 0.11–0.50). Positive affect, but not emotional distress, at time 2 significantly predicted steeper diurnal cortisol slopes at time 3 (β = − 0.22, SE = 0.08, p < 0.01). Self-compassion and self-criticism showed significant negative and positive indirect effects on time 3 diurnal cortisol slopes via time 2 positive affect, respectively. Conclusions Our findings support indirect linkages between self-compassion and steeper diurnal cortisol slopes via positive affect. Positive affect may mediate temporal relationships between self-compassion and neuroendocrine functioning in colorectal cancer survivors.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Anita Schick ◽  
Ruud van Winkel ◽  
Bochao D. Lin ◽  
Jurjen J. Luykx ◽  
Sonja M.C. de Zwarte ◽  

Abstract Background There is evidence for a polygenic contribution to psychosis. One targetable mechanism through which polygenic variation may impact on individuals and interact with the social environment is stress sensitization, characterized by elevated reactivity to minor stressors in daily life. The current study aimed to investigate whether stress reactivity is modified by polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS) in cases with enduring non-affective psychotic disorder, first-degree relatives of cases, and controls. Methods We used the experience sampling method to assess minor stressors, negative affect, positive affect and psychotic experiences in 96 cases, 79 first-degree relatives, i.e. siblings, and 73 controls at wave 3 of the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. Genome-wide data were collected at baseline to calculate PRS. Results We found that associations of momentary stress with psychotic experiences, but not with negative and positive affect, were modified by PRS and group (all pFWE<0.001). In contrast to our hypotheses, siblings with high PRS reported less intense psychotic experiences in response to momentary stress compared to siblings with low PRS. No differences in magnitude of these associations were observed in cases with high v. low level of PRS. By contrast, controls with high PRS showed more intense psychotic experiences in response to stress compared to those with low PRS. Conclusions This tentatively suggests that polygenic risk may operate in different ways than previously assumed and amplify reactivity to stress in unaffected individuals but operate as a resilience factor in relatives by attenuating their stress reactivity.

Ana Carolina Barris-Oliveira ◽  
Gabriel Lins de Holanda Coelho ◽  
Adolfo Wenjaw Liao ◽  
Fernanda Ferraz Assir ◽  
Ana Lucia Neves ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
P. Upadhyay ◽  
T. F. H. Chang ◽  
S. Hariri ◽  
S. Rallabandi ◽  
Santha Yathavakilla ◽  

In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are rapidly growing in the workplace. Several meta-analyses conclude that overall MBIs have a moderate effect of alleviating deficit-based experiences, such as burnout and stress, but a small to no effect of promoting asset-based experiences, such as positive affect and well-being. While workplace MBIs vary greatly in their content, format, and duration, the dominant format is still face to face in a group setting, which limits scalability. Our study introduces an emerging workplace intervention called Inner Engineering Online (IEO) and evaluates its effect on reducing stress, burnout, depression, and anxiety and increasing mindfulness and joy. Drawing on the classical yogic science, IEO is a comprehensive web-based multicomponent intervention that utilizes dialectic discourse, meditation, and yogic practices designed to improve physical, mental, and emotional health. Utilizing a randomized active control cross-over experimental design with a sample of 71 employees of an Information Technology company, we tested our hypothesis that IEO training and regular daily yogic practice are likely to lower the stress levels, prevent burnout, and alleviate anxiety and depression, while at the same time promotes positive affect for employees. The results show that IEO program significantly reduces stress only among those who adhere to recommended daily yogic practices. The study is limited by its small sample size. Future research using a large sample is recommended to reexamine the effect of IEO training on occupational health. This trial is registered with NCT04126564.

Celia Díaz-Portugal ◽  
Juan Bautista Delgado-García ◽  
Virginia Blanco-Mazagatos

This article extends previous literature on opportunity evaluation by analysing how positive affect influences opportunity evaluation and the subsequent willingness to act entrepreneurially. We draw on two mediational channels (i.e., the affect-to-affect-to-outcome and affect-to-cognition routes) regarding the influence of affect on positive outcomes upon arguments that opportunity evaluation comprises of the cognitive representations of the focal opportunity and of oneself. Specifically, we analyse the mediating effects of the image of the opportunity and self-efficacy in the relationship between positive affect and the willingness to act entrepreneurially. We test our hypotheses on a sample of nascent entrepreneurs participating in training programmes in six Spanish incubators whom were asked to evaluate their own opportunities. Our findings show that positive affect exerts a positive indirect effect through the image of the opportunity, but do not indicate any mediating effect of self-efficacy. These findings may help entrepreneurs understand the affective subjectivity of their opportunity assessments.

AERA Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 233285842110680
Nathan D. Jones ◽  
Eric M. Camburn ◽  
Benjamin Kelcey ◽  
Esther Quintero

Several large-scale survey efforts have attempted to understand teachers’ experiences in the early months of the pandemic. Our study complements this literature by providing direct evidence of teachers’ work prior to and after the onset of COVID-19. We leverage unique longitudinal time use and affect data on 131 teachers from one district across the 2019–2020 school year. Specifically, we provide a full accounting of teachers’ instructional activities, their reports of their positive affect and negative affect while engaged in these activities, and the extent to which teachers’ work experiences changed post-COVID. Our results suggest a large reduction in teachers’ daily instructional minutes, which were replaced with increased planning, paperwork, and interactions with colleagues and parents. Teachers’ overall positive and negative affect did not change post-COVID. But teachers’ affective responses to specific work activities did. Post-COVID, we saw increases in teachers’ positive affect when with students.

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