randomised controlled trials
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 1
Alan Scarry ◽  
Jennifer Rice ◽  
Eibhlís M O' Connor ◽  
Audrey C Tierney

Background: Mobile technology has grown at an exceptional rate and is now a huge part of our daily living. This use of mobile technology has opened up new possibilities in treating health, with almost half of the current applications linked to the mHealth sector. In particular, dietary measurement, applications have become very accessible and very popular. As dietary issues have become more prevalent, more mobile and mHealth applications offer various solutions. This systematic review aims to address if the use of such mobile applications or mobile health technology can improve diet quality in adults that interact with them. Methods: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs) will be conducted. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (Cinahl), The American Psychological Association’s (APA Psycinfo), and PubMed will be searched from January 2010 to November 2021. Primary outcomes will include identifying if adults who use mobile applications and health technology improve their diet quality compared to adults who do not use this technology. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The methodological appraisal of the studies will be assessed independently by two different reviewers (AS and JR) using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool for RCTs and the Risk-of Bias In Non-Randomised Studies Tool for NRCTs. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval is not essential for this systematic review. Only data from studies that are publically available from previously published studies will be used. The findings of this systematic review will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. PROSPERO registration: CRD42021240224 (01/03/2021).

Rachel Anne Rowntree ◽  
Hassan Hosseinzadeh

Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Evidence suggests self-management (SM) interventions benefit cancer patients. This review aims to determine the effectiveness of SM interventions for lung cancer patients. Method: Searches occurred in PubMed, Cinahl, ProQuest, Psych Info, Scopus, and Medline, using predefined criteria, assessing randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Results: Five hundred and eighty-seven studies were yielded, 10 RCTs met criteria. Of the total patient pool, 1001 of 1089 had Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Six studies tested home-based SM exercise, two studies SM education, and one each for diary utilisation and symptom reporting. Fatigue was the most targeted function. Other functions targeted included exercise capacity, anxiety, depression, quality of life (QoL), sleep quality, and symptom burden. Six studies met their primary endpoints (five SM exercise, one SM education). Positive outcomes are described for fatigue, anxiety/depression, sleep quality, self-efficacy, and exercise capacity. With exception to fatigue, early-stage NSCLC, younger age, female, never smokers, partnered patients experienced increased treatment effect. Conclusions: SM interventions improve outcomes among some lung cancer patients. Interventions targeting fatigue yield benefit despite histology, stage or gender and could encourage broader cohort engagement. Consideration of patient characteristics may predict SM effect. Effectiveness of home-based SM exercise by NSCLC stage and SM tailored to sociodemographic variables requires further research.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e050579
Shunlian Fu ◽  
Qian Zhou ◽  
Lijun Yuan ◽  
Zinan Li ◽  
Qiu Chen

IntroductionThere have been many meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials on the influence of different diets on obesity-related anthropometric characteristics in adults. However, whether diet interventions can effectively decrease obesity-related anthropometric characteristics remains unclear. The objective of this study is to summarise and synthesise the evidence on the effects of diet on obesity-related anthropometric characteristics in adults by an umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials.Methods and analysisWe will first retrieve English articles only published before 15 December 2021 by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Only articles that are meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials will be included. Three researchers will independently screen the titles and abstracts of retrieved articles and check the data extracted from each eligible meta-analysis. In each meta-analysis, we will consider calculating the effect size of the mean difference of the effect of each diet on obesity-related anthropometric characteristics in adults using a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model according to heterogeneity. Study heterogeneity (Cochrane’s Q and I2 statistics) and small-study effects (Egger’s test or Begg’s test) will be considered. Evidence of each effect size will be graded according to the NutriGrade scoring system. We will use AMSTAR-2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews V.2) to assess the methodological quality of each meta-analysis.Ethics and disseminationThis umbrella review will provide information on the effects of different diets on obesity-related anthropometric characteristics in adults. Ethical approval is not necessary for this study. We will publish the completed umbrella review and related data online.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42021232826.

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