**Classical Result**

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AbstractWe describe classical and recent results concerning the structure of class groups of number fields as modules over the Galois group. When presenting more modern developments, we can only hint at the much broader context and the very powerful general techniques that are involved, but we endeavour to give complete statements or at least examples where feasible. The timeline goes from a classical result proved in 1890 (Stickelberger’s Theorem) to a recent (2020) breakthrough: the proof of the Brumer-Stark conjecture by Dasgupta and Kakde.

We essentially extend and improve the classical result of G. H. Hardy and J. E. Littlewood on strong summability of Fourier series. We will present an estimation of the generalized strong mean (H, Φ) as an approximation version of the Totik type generaliza- tion of the result of G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, in case of integrable functions from LΨ. As a measure of such approximation we will use the function constructed by function Ψ com- plementary to Φ on the base of definition of the LΨ points. Some corollary and remarks will also be given.

AbstractGiven $${{\mathbb {V}}}$$ V a polarizable variation of $${{\mathbb {Z}}}$$ Z -Hodge structures on a smooth connected complex quasi-projective variety S, the Hodge locus for $${{\mathbb {V}}}^\otimes $$ V ⊗ is the set of closed points s of S where the fiber $${{\mathbb {V}}}_s$$ V s has more Hodge tensors than the very general one. A classical result of Cattani, Deligne and Kaplan states that the Hodge locus for $${{\mathbb {V}}}^\otimes $$ V ⊗ is a countable union of closed irreducible algebraic subvarieties of S, called the special subvarieties of S for $${{\mathbb {V}}}$$ V . Under the assumption that the adjoint group of the generic Mumford–Tate group of $${{\mathbb {V}}}$$ V is simple we prove that the union of the special subvarieties for $${{\mathbb {V}}}$$ V whose image under the period map is not a point is either a closed algebraic subvariety of S or is Zariski-dense in S. This implies for instance the following typical intersection statement: given a Hodge-generic closed irreducible algebraic subvariety S of the moduli space $${{\mathcal {A}}}_g$$ A g of principally polarized Abelian varieties of dimension g, the union of the positive dimensional irreducible components of the intersection of S with the strict special subvarieties of $${{\mathcal {A}}}_g$$ A g is either a closed algebraic subvariety of S or is Zariski-dense in S.

AbstractThe classical result of L. Székelyhidi states that (under some assumptions) every solution of a general linear equation must be a polynomial function. It is known that Székelyhidi’s result may be generalized to equations where some occurrences of the unknown functions are multiplied by a linear combination of the variables. In this paper we study the equations where two such combinations appear. The simplest nontrivial example of such a case is given by the equation $$\begin{aligned} F(x + y) - F(x) - F(y) = yf(x) + xf(y) \end{aligned}$$ F ( x + y ) - F ( x ) - F ( y ) = y f ( x ) + x f ( y ) considered by Fechner and Gselmann (Publ Math Debrecen 80(1–2):143–154, 2012). In the present paper we prove several results concerning the systematic approach to the generalizations of this equation.

AbstractIn this paper we consider the wave equations for hypoelliptic homogeneous left-invariant operators on graded Lie groups with time-dependent Hölder (or more regular) non-negative propagation speeds. The examples are the time-dependent wave equation for the sub-Laplacian on the Heisenberg group or on general stratified Lie groups, or $p$ p -evolution equations for higher order operators on ${{\mathbb{R}}}^{n}$ R n or on groups, already in all these cases our results being new. We establish sharp well-posedness results in the spirit of the classical result by Colombini, De Giorgi and Spagnolo. In particular, we describe an interesting local loss of regularity phenomenon depending on the step of the group (for stratified groups) and on the order of the considered operator.

How you think about a phenomenon certainly influences how you create a program to model it. The main point of this essay is that the influence goes both ways: creating programs influences how you think. The programs we are talking about are not just the ones we write for a computer. Programs can be implemented on a computer or with physical devices or in your mind. The implementation can bring your ideas to life. Often, though, the implementation and the ideas develop in tandem, each acting as a mirror on the other. We describe an example of how programming and mathematics come together to inform and shape our interpretation of a classical result in mathematics: Euclid's algorithm that finds the greatest common divisor of two integers.

The coordinates along any fixed direction(s), of points on the sphere $S^{n-1}(\sqrt{n})$, roughly follow a standard Gaussian distribution as $n$ approaches infinity. We revisit this classical result from a nonstandard analysis perspective, providing a new proof by working with hyperfinite dimensional spheres. We also set up a nonstandard theory for the asymptotic behavior of integrals over varying domains in general. We obtain a new proof of the Riemann--Lebesgue lemma as a by-product of this theory. We finally show that for any function $f \co \mathbb{R}^k \to \mathbb{R}$ with finite Gaussian moment of an order larger than one, its expectation is given by a Loeb integral integral over a hyperfinite dimensional sphere. Some useful inequalities between high-dimensional spherical means of $f$ and its Gaussian mean are obtained in order to complete the above proof.

The definition of related mappings was introduced by Fisher in 1981. He proved some theorems about the existence of fixed points of single valued mappings defined on two complete metric spaces and relations between these mappings. In this paper, we present some related fixed point results for multivalued mappings on two complete metric spaces. First we give a classical result which is an extension of the main result of Fisher to the multivalued case. Then considering the recent technique of Wardowski, we provide two related fixed point results for both compact set valued and closed bounded set valued mappings via $F$-contraction type conditions.

We study the limiting distribution of a pair counting statistics of the form [Formula: see text] for the circular [Formula: see text]-ensemble (C[Formula: see text]E) of random matrices for sufficiently smooth test function [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] For [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] our results are inspired by a classical result of Montgomery on pair correlation of zeros of Riemann zeta function.

Abstract A classical result about unit equations says that if Γ1 and Γ2 are finitely generated subgroups of ${\mathbb C}^\times$, then the equation x + y = 1 has only finitely many solutions with x ∈ Γ1 and y ∈ Γ2. We study a non-commutative analogue of the result, where $\Gamma_1,\Gamma_2$ are finitely generated subsemigroups of the multiplicative group of a quaternion algebra. We prove an analogous conclusion when both semigroups are generated by algebraic quaternions with norms greater than 1 and one of the semigroups is commutative. As an application in dynamics, we prove that if f and g are endomorphisms of a curve C of genus 1 over an algebraically closed field k, and deg( f), deg(g)≥ 2, then f and g have a common iterate if and only if some forward orbit of f on C(k) has infinite intersection with an orbit of g.