Sodium Chloride
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2021 ◽  
Vol 213 (10) ◽  
pp. 75-80
E. Razhina

Abstract. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between indicators of cicatricial digestion and linearity of cows. Methods. The research was carried out in the breeding enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region on the livestock of Ural-type cows. Cicatricial fluid was collected with an oropharyngeal rubber probe, and a wooden yaw was also used. Cicatricial content was assessed at the Chelyabinsk Interregional Veterinary Laboratory. The pH value was determined by the electrometric method, VFA – in the Markgam apparatus, ammonia – by the microdiffusion method. Ciliates – in Goryaev’s chamber and under a microscope, bacteria – under a microscope with the addition of sodium chloride solution. Statistical data processing was carried out in the Microsoft Office Excel 2010 program. Results. In terms of the number of ciliates and bacteria in the rumen fluid, the Montwick Chieftain cows, characterized by high productive qualities, had an advantage. In terms of pH and VFA, the Vis Back Ideal line was the best. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the amount of ammonia in the rumen. The best animals from the point of view of influence on cicatricial metabolism were the animals of the Vis Back Ideal and Montwick Chieftain lineage. Scientific novelty. Studies have shown that linearity is associated with cicatricial digestion in cows. The relationship of bull lines with indicators of cicatricial metabolism of cows has been determined for the first time. The food in the rumen is digested due to the action of bacteria, ciliates, and fungi. An environment has been created in the rumen for the active development of microflora. Bacteria are able to synthesize amino acids and vitamins. The proventriculus can contain up to 50 species of ciliates.

Geofluids ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Bo Wang ◽  
Dangliang Wang ◽  
Wenjie Cao ◽  
Guofu Li ◽  
Wei Hou ◽  

Hydrogeological conditions can control the generation, preservation, enrichment, and production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the field; however, research on these impacts is insufficient, resulting in the limitation of the development of coalbed methane. This paper summarizes the current research status and development trends of the effect of hydrogeology on CBM using methods such as mathematical statistics, literature analysis, well logging, and hydrochemical analysis. The results indicate that it is beneficial for the generation of secondary biogenic gases in low-rank coal seams under the situations like active hydrodynamic conditions with a salinity less than 1000 mg/L, a pH range from 5.9 to 8.8, or a range of oxidation-reduction potential from -540 mV to -590 mV. The abnormally high temperature due to the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids accelerates the metamorphism of coal rocks, leading to the promotion of the generation of thermogenic gases. When the coalbed structural conditions of one area are similar to the depositional conditions in that area, the CBM is accumulated if the conditions of that area meet the following criteria: the water type is NaHCO3, the salinity is greater than 1500 mg/L, the desulfurization coefficient is less than 1, and the sodium-chloride coefficient is less than 10. The stable isotope analysis of CBM well-produced water shows that the δD values in the groundwater shift to the left of the global meteoric water line, indicating that the produced water comes from atmospheric precipitation. In the CBM enrichment zone, the area with a relatively high salinity and a low sodium-chloride coefficient is the high-production area. Based on our study, three high CBM-production patterns are summarized: coalbed structure-hydraulic trapping, fold limb-fracture development, and syncline core-water stagnation. Additionally, four development trends of the control of hydrogeology on CBM are proposed: transformation from qualitative evaluation to quantitative evaluation, from a singular evaluation standard to multiple evaluation standards, from static evaluation to dynamic evaluation, and from pure theoretical research to theoretical guidance on production practices.

2021 ◽  
Elliot Johnson Humphrey ◽  
Alan Kennedy ◽  
Stephen Sproules ◽  
David Nelson

The use of a sodium in sodium chloride dispersion is systematically evaluated for the synthesis of nickel(0) and nickel(I) complexes from readily-prepared nickel(II) precursors. A variety of complexes with phosphine and bipyridine-type ligands were accessed, although some reactions were found to produce mixtures of nickel(0) and nickel(I), and yields were highly variable. Several new nickel(I) complexes were obtained, and these were characterised using techniques including NMR spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 082585972110527
Ruth Isherwood ◽  
Amy Forsyth ◽  
Anne Wilson

Background Dihydrocodeine can be more effective in the management of headache due to brain tumor than other opioids. It can be used as a subcutaneous infusion, but at present, there is little available data to support its use in combination with other medicines in a syringe pump. Aim This project aimed to establish physical stability data for the use of dihydrocodeine with other drugs when combined in a syringe pump. Design: Dihydrocodeine was combined in a syringe pump with either cyclizine, midazolam, or hyoscine butylbromide at different doses chosen to represent routine clinical practice. Each drug combination was repeated twice—with 0.9% sodium chloride and with water for injections. Setting: The project was conducted in an independent hospice after seeking appropriate approvals to use the drugs for this purpose. Results Dihydrocodeine and midazolam appear compatible at when 0.9% sodium chloride is used as the diluent. Dihydrocodeine and cyclizine appeared compatible when either 0.9% saline or water for injections was used as the diluent. Dihydrocodeine and hyoscine butylbromide appeared compatible with either diluent at 24 hours. Conclusions Physical stability data has been described that will support the use of dihydrocodeine and other drugs that are commonly used to manage symptoms due to brain tumors at the end of life. This information will benefit patients and ensure that one syringe pump can be used where possible. Future work could expand on this data and explore the physical stability of three drug combinations in each syringe.

Ana Carla PESSUTTO ◽  
Eliena JONKO

Aluminum stands out for being a light, corrosion-resistant, and recyclable metal, achieving wide coverage in the market. When incorporated into alloying elements, it is possible to acquire other desirable characteristics. Alloy 6063, intended for architectural purposes, has aesthetic, structural, and strength functions. This study aims to compare two different staining methods on the surface of anodized profiles of aluminum alloy 6063. Anodized finishing is performed through an electrolytic process using sulfuric acid as an electrolyte to change the surface layer of the material, ensuring a more resistant aluminum oxide film than that formed naturally. For decorative purposes, the anodic film coloration can be performed by several methodologies, including, in this case, the coloration by organic adsorption, with the use of aniline, and the electrolytic coloration, composed of tin sulfate salts, both for obtaining the black color. To compare, neutral saline mist tests, scanning electron microscopy analysis, determination of the anodic layer thickness, and immersion tests with 3.5 percent sodium chloride for 1000 hours. The results obtained highlight that both were shown to be resistant to corrosion due to the fact that they do not present corrosion points when exposed to the neutral saline mist test for 600 hours. In the immersion tests, both remained resistant to sodium chloride. Because both methodologies present satisfactory results in all tests, the quality of the applied stains is ensured, and it is found that they are equivalent when the parameters discussed are used.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (25) ◽  
Olga Victorovna Gladkova ◽  
Evgeny Aleksandrovich Gladkov

Deicing reagents have an impact on the environment. The composition of the deicing reagents used in Moscow has undergone certain changes. However, the main components of deicing reagents were chlorides, including calcium chloride and (or) sodium chloride. We also conducted research on the effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on some urban decorative plants. Soil salinization is a negative environmental impact in urban ecosystems. Deicing reagents affect both plants and the environment in general.

2021 ◽  
Helene Haeberle ◽  
Peter Rosenberger ◽  
Peter Martus

Background. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) results in significant hypoxia, and ARDS is the central pathology of COVID-19. Inhaled prostacyclin has been proposed as a therapy for ARDS, but data regarding its role in this syndrome are unavailable. Therefore, we investigated whether inhaled prostacyclin would affect the oxygenation and survival of patients suffering from ARDS. Methods. We performed a prospective randomized controlled single-blind multicenter trial across Germany. The trial was conducted from March 2019 with final follow-up on 12 th of August 2021. Patients with moderate to severe ARDS were included and randomized to receive either inhaled prostacyclin (3 times/day for 5 days) or sodium chloride. The primary outcome was the oxygenation index in the intervention and control groups on Day 5 of therapy. Secondary outcomes were mortality, secondary organ failure, disease severity and adverse events. Findings. Of 707 patients approached 150 patients were randomized to receive inhaled prostacyclin (n=73) or sodium chloride (n=77). Data from 144 patients were analyzed. The baseline oxygenation index did not differ between groups. The primary analysis of the study was negative, and prostacyclin improved oxygenation by 20 mmHg more than NaCl (p=0.17). Oxygenation was significantly improved in patients with ARDS who were COVID-19-positive (34 mmHg, p=0.04). Mortality did not differ between groups. Secondary organ failure and adverse events were similar in the intervention and control groups. Interpretation. Although the primary result of our study was negative, our data suggest that inhaled prostacyclin might be a more beneficial treatment than standard care for patients with ARDS.

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