thermal process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 114467
Wanglin Chen ◽  
Yonghao Huang ◽  
Hui Xiao ◽  
Xianna Meng ◽  
Zhe Li ◽  

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 185
Yao-Chih Lu ◽  
Yu-Tsz Hsu ◽  
Tsung-Yen Yang ◽  
I-Chun Liou ◽  
Sheng-Wei Wang ◽  

Three new amino-s-triazine-based dendrons, 1a, 1b, and 1c, containing an aryl-CN moiety in the dendritic skeleton were prepared in 72–81% yields (1a: R1 = − N(n-C8H17)2, R2 = n-OC8H17, 1b: R1 = R2 = − N(n-C8H17)2, 1c: R1 = − N(n-C8H17)2, R2 = − N(n-C4H9)2). Dendrons 1a with N(n-C8H17)2 and n-OC8H17 peripheral substituents, surprisingly, did not show any mesogenic phase during the thermal process. However, non-mesogenic 1a can be converted to mesogenic 1b or 1c by eliminating the peripheral dipole arising from the alkoxy substituent; dendron 1b only comprising the same N(n-C8H17)2 peripheral groups showed a ~25 °C mesogenic range on heating and ~108 °C mesogenic range on cooling. In contrast, dendron 1c possessing different N(n-CmH2m+1)2 (m = 8 versus m = 4) peripheral units, having similar stacking as 1b, exhibited a columnar phase on thermal treatment, but its mesogenic range (~9 and ~66 °C on heating and cooling, respectively) was much narrower than that of 1b, attributed to 1c’s less flexible alkyl chains in the peripheral part of dendron. Dendron 1a with the alkoxy substituent in the peripheral skeleton, creating additional dipole correspondingly, thus, leads to the dendritic molecules having a non-mesogenic stacking. Without the peripheral dipole for intermolecular side-by-side interaction, dendrons 1b and 1c exhibit a columnar phase on thermal treatment because of the vibration from the peripheral alkyl chain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (119) ◽  
pp. 231-242
Aniseh Zarei Jelyani ◽  
hannan lashkari ◽  
Javad Tavakoli ◽  
Mahmood Aminlari ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00007
Dyah Nurul Afiyah ◽  
Irma Isnafia Arief ◽  
Tuti Suryati ◽  
Riska Nurtantyo Sarbini

Yoghurt is a functional drink that is beneficial to health. However, nutritional losses, e.g. vitamin C, occurs during the thermal process. Therefore, vitamin C supplementation is needed to replace the lost amount during processing by adding the extract of podang urang mango (Mangifera indica L.). The yoghurt was made by adding 3% (v/v) of starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus RRAM-01 and Streptococcus salivarus subsp thermophillus RRAM-01) and mango extract at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% (v/v) in four replications. The determination of vitamin C content was performed using titration method. The results showed that heating process at 85-90 °C in 35 minutes lowered the amount of vitamin C in the final product. However, the addition of podang urang mango extract at 6%, 8% and 10% could increase the amount of vitamin C.

玉轩 李 ◽  
Keke Ding ◽  
Haozhong Wu ◽  
Qing Wan ◽  
Yao Ma ◽  

Recently, some discovery based on non-radiative decay process leading to photodynamic therapy or photothermal therapy has become an attaching hotspot, and how to achieve better performance is becoming important in...

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Fouad El Mansouri ◽  
Hammadi El Farissi ◽  
Francesco Cacciola ◽  
Badr Bouhcain ◽  
Joaquim C. G. Esteves da Silva ◽  

The present study aimed to validate a control method on the gas chromatography system (GC) based on the experimental design strategy, to examine the changes and correlation between the fermentation process and the quality of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beer product, especially the formation of diacetyl. On the other hand, spectrophotometric methods were applied to the determination of polyphenols content and the potential antioxidant activity of beer during different fermentation processes. with this aim, three modes of barley fermentation were used, specifically classical fermentation, stopped fermentation and thermal process. The results showed that the different fermentation modes had a major impact on diacetyl production. The highest concentration was obtained using stopped fermentation 0.36 mg/L, the lowest concentration value 0.07 mg/L was detected using the thermal process. Monitoring the increase of oxygen concentration between fermentation, filtration, and filling of the final product (32, 107, 130 ppm, respectively) has a significant impact on the concentration of diacetyl. The obtained results of spectrophotometric analysis showed that the total antioxidant activity changed during beer fermentation process and demonstrate that the extend of the antioxidant activity was very much dependent on the total polyphenolic content with a higher value in Hopped wort (13.41%, 65 mg GAE 100 mL−1, 28 mg CE 100 mL−1) for antioxidant potential, total phenolic content, and total flavonoids content, respectively, whereas the lowest values was detected in Non-alcoholic beer using thermal process (7.24%, 35 mg GAE 100 mL−1, 10 mg CE 100 mL−1) for antioxidant potential, total phenolic contents, and total flavonoids contents, respectively. Based on the results achieved, we reveal the impact of the fermentation process on the nutritional value of the final product.

Eunyoung Park ◽  
Sangeun Park ◽  
Jeong Hyeon Hwang ◽  
Ah Hyun Jung ◽  
Sung Hee Park ◽  

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