Oryza Sativa L
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 038-046
Author(s):  
Zipporah Page ◽  
David P Tokpah ◽  
Khady N Drame ◽  
Zogbo Luther ◽  
Victor M Voor ◽  
...  

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food crop in many countries in Africa. Africa consumes 11.6 million tons of rice per annum and out of 39 rice-producing countries, 21 import 50% to 99% of their rice requirements. The inability to reach the yield potential that would sustain Africa’s need for rice is due to many biotic and abiotic constraints that rice production faces. In lowland grown rice, one of the abiotic factors hindering rice production is iron toxicity. Excess uptake of ferrous (Fe2+) ions leads to a physiological stress, which results, into poor production. The current study aimed at selection of varieties tolerant to iron toxicity and assessment of the genetic diversity linked to this trait. In a hydroponic experiment conducted in a screen house at Africa Rice Centre in Dar es Salaam, 32 rice varieties were evaluated for tolerance to iron toxicity. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with iron concentration as the main plot factor and variety as the sub plot factor. Two levels of iron concentration were used: 2 ppm and 300 ppm of Fe2+ as control and test concentrations, respectively. Traits observed to gauge tolerance were leaf bronzing (an indicator of iron toxicity), plant height, tillering, number of leaves, shoot weight (above ground), root length and root weight. The varieties ARICA8, and CK801 were found to be tolerant due to low bronzing indices, higher shoot weight, more number of leaves and lack of significant variation in morphology between the two Fe treatments except for the plant height. Correlation analysis depicted negative correlation between leaf bronzing and the other traits measured especially shoot biomass.


Biocelebes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 125-138
Author(s):  
Syech Zainal Enal ◽  
Amirudin Kasim ◽  
Musdalifah Nurdin ◽  
Andi Tandra Tellu

The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the types of plants used by the Kaili Da’a tribe in life cycle ceremonies that are still preserved for generations in Uwemanje village, Kinovaro district, Sigi district. The research population is all people who live in Uwemanje Village, Kinivaro District, which are spread over 4 hamlets. The research method uses survey research with the help of interview questionnaires. Interviews were conducted on key respondents and general respondents. Key respondents were selected by purposive sampling as much as 10% of the population, namely the people who were considered to be the most knowledgeable about the ins and outs of this ceremony, such as Sando, traditional leaders, village heads and village priests. Meanwhile, general respondents are people who are recommended by key respondents with a record that they are at least 30 years old and are married or have a family. The data and information in this study were processed descriptively. Types of plants/plants used in life cycle ceremonies consist of 21 species, namely: rice (Oryza sativa L.), coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa paradisiaca L.), cocor duck (Kalanchoe pinata L.), areca nut (Areca catechu L.), turmeric (Curcuma domestica L.), nail paci (Lawsonia enermis L.), bogenvil (Boganvillea glabra L.), pandanus (Pandanus amarylifolius L.), jatropha (Jatropha curcas), forest basil ( Ocimum sanctum L.), moringa (Moringa oleifera L.), shallot (Allium cepa L.), Bengal grass (Eleusine indica L.), hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus L.), peacock flower (Caesalpinia pulcherima L.), betel (Piper betle L.), keluwih (Artocarpus camansi L.), jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.), palm sugar (Arenga pinnata), and red sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.). The percentage of utilization of plant parts that are most directly utilized is the leaves which amount to 14 with a percentage of 65.66%, flowers amount to 4 to 16.67%, fruit to reach 3 to 12.5%. The least used parts are rhizomes, seeds, tubers, roots and stems with a percentage of 5.17%.


Author(s):  
Raphael Lucas Jacinto Almeida ◽  
Newton Carlos Santos ◽  
Carlos Eduardo Padilha ◽  
Mércia Melo Almeida Mota ◽  
Virgínia Mirtes Alcântara Silva ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Liangzi Cao ◽  
Shukun Jiang ◽  
Guohua Ding ◽  
Tongtong Wang ◽  
Liangming Bai ◽  
...  

AbstractThe cold tolerance of germinating direct-sown rice (Oryza sativa L.) has an increased rate of emergence, which ensures vigorous seedling growth. Research on QTL localization for cold tolerance at the germination stage can assist in molecular marker-assisted selection and enhance breeding efficiency. In this study, 94 populations of recombinant self-incompatible lines from Heigu and Ha 9366 were selected to investigate germination rates at low temperatures. It was found that two QTL loci (qLTG-3 and qLTG-12) were located at different germination times on chromosomes 3 and 12, respectively. The two QTLs at three different germination times, located using QTL, accounted for 21.3–25.9% of the phenotypic variation. Moreover, a reciprocal effect was detected between the two QTLs. The double QTLs increased the germination rate by 22–27% in this population. Additionally, qLTG-12 improved cold tolerance at the seedling stage. The results of this study might provide the materials and molecular markers for future molecular marker-assisted breeding for cold tolerance at the germination stage.


2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-122
Author(s):  
Rita Sarah Borna ◽  
S Mitra ◽  
AJA Gifary ◽  
RH Sarker

Biramsundari is a rice germplasm from Bangladesh showing one to four grain in a single seed. Comparative study of morphological traits revealed that BS is a taller rice variety compared to modern rice varieties with longer and wider flag leaves, longer panicle length and higher thousand seed weight (TSW) than transplanted aman rice variety BRRI dhan 49. Flower morphological analysis unveil that multiple grains of Biramsundari are originating from multiple number of carpels in each floret. About 40.1% flower contains three carpels. Fluorescent microscopic study also confirms the zygotic origin of multiple grain formation in Biramsundari. Molecular characterisation of Biramsundari was performed by using TeaCpSSR27 and TeaCpSSR28 chloroplast microsatellite markers. The results of this investigation reveal that atpF and rsp14-psaB intergenic spacer regions of Biramsundari have variation compared to sequences of with O. sativa ssp. indica, O. sativa ssp. japonica and O. rufipogon. Plant Tissue Cult. & Biotech. 31(2): 115-122, 2021 (December)


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 638
Author(s):  
Intikhab Aalum Jehangir ◽  
Ashaq Hussain ◽  
Shabir H. Wani ◽  
Syed Sheraz Mahdi ◽  
Mohammad Anwar Bhat ◽  
...  

Transplanting rice appears to pose many problems, including depletion of freshwater reservoirs and competition for labor. Conversely, direct seeding allows us to overcome shortcomings associated with conventional transplanting. Nitrogen is a crucial nutrient needed for plant growth and yield. Therefore, this study was executed to analyze the influence of nitrogen on the performance of rice genotypes grown by direct seeding in wet soil. The experiment comprised various rice cultivars, i.e., Shalimar Rice-1, Shalimar Rice-3, Shalimar Rice-4, and Jhelum, and nitrogen (N) levels, i.e., 0, 90, 120, and 150 kg/ha. Shalimar Rice-4 produced a maximum grain yield (6.39 t/ha), followed by Shalimar Rice-3 and Jhelum). The application of 150 kg N/ha showed maximum values for growth parameters, yield attributing traits, and grain yield (6.68 t/ha); however, it remained at par with 120 kg N/ha. Crop water productivity was highest in Shalimar Rice-4 (0.49 kg/m3), and the same showed a consistent increase with increasing N levels from 0–150 kg/ha, with a comparable value of 0.49 to 0.51 recorded at 120 and 150 kg N/ha. Moreover, the Shalimar Rice-1 variety required the maximum in growing degree days (GDD) and helio-thermal units (HTU) to attain different phenological stages till physiological maturity (131 days). However, the cultivar Shalimar rice-4 (SR-4) performed better by registering significantly higher heat use efficiency (HUE) (4.44 kg/ha °C/day). Additionally, the highest net return and the benefit-cost ratio were registered by Shalimar Rice-4. B:C ratio of 1.75 was realized from application of 150 kg N/ha, which remained very close to that achieved with 120 kg N/ha. In conclusion, the rice cultivar Shalimar Rice-4 with the application of 120 kg N/ha could boost rice production under DSR in water-scarce regions of temperate northern India.


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
UPASANA MANHAS ◽  
SOM PAL SINGH ◽  
P.K. KINGRA ◽  
R. K. SETIA ◽  
RAJNI SHARMA

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