cell structure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 820
Seungwan Woo ◽  
Geunhwan Ryu ◽  
Taesoo Kim ◽  
Namgi Hong ◽  
Jae-Hoon Han ◽  

We demonstrate, for the first time, GaAs thin film solar cells epitaxially grown on a Si substrate using a metal wafer bonding and epitaxial lift-off process. A relatively thin 2.1 μm GaAs buffer layer was first grown on Si as a virtual substrate, and a threading dislocation density of 1.8 × 107 cm−2 was achieved via two In0.1Ga0.9As strained insertion layers and 6× thermal cycle annealing. An inverted p-on-n GaAs solar cell structure grown on the GaAs/Si virtual substrate showed homogenous photoluminescence peak intensities throughout the 2″ wafer. We show a 10.6% efficient GaAs thin film solar cell without anti-reflection coatings and compare it to nominally identical upright structure solar cells grown on GaAs and Si. This work paves the way for large-scale and low-cost wafer-bonded III-V multi-junction solar cells.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Jianjun Yang ◽  
Xiaobao Yu ◽  
Yaxin Li ◽  
Guilin Cheng ◽  
Zichuan Yi ◽  

Traditional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) use FTO/ITO containing expensive rare elements as electrodes, which are difficult to meet the requirements of flexibility. A new type of flexible DSSC structure with all-metal electrodes without rare elements is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a light-receiving layer was prepared outside the metal photoanode with small holes to realize the continuous oxidation-reduction reaction in the electrolyte; Secondly, the processing technology of the porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) film was analyzed. By testing the J–V characteristics, it was found that the performance is better when the heating rate is slow. Finally, the effects of different electrode material combinations were compared through experiments. Our results imply that in the case of all stainless-steel electrodes, the open-circuit voltage can reach 0.73 V, and in the case of a titanium photoanode, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 3.86%.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Wenbo Zhang ◽  
Tao Hu ◽  
Yanting Chang ◽  
Benhua Fei ◽  
Yanjun Ma ◽  

Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carriere) J. Houzeau), native to China, is one of the most economically and ecologically important bamboo species. Since the economic interests and the strong clonality, it has been widely cultivated in southern China, which inevitably reduces the natural stands and leads to gene loss in this species. In this study, three natural populations of Moso bamboo distributed in Anhui, Guangxi, and Zhejiang province, were used to analyze the correlation between phenotypic traits, cell structure, and material properties from the perspective of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental. Among those traits and properties, fiber width was correlated with wall thickness at breast height and average nodes length under branch positively. Leaf length was correlated positively with fiber lumen diameter and parenchyma lumen diameter. Furthermore, it showed a very close correlation between moisture content, bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and diameter at breast height, clear height, and leaf length. The lumen diameter of fiber cell wall thickness is positively correlated with bending strength and modulus of elasticity. Density is positively correlated with parenchyma cell wall thickness. The experimental design is relatively detailed and representative, and the workload is huge. This study reflects the research objectives with scientific and rational experiments and data. This study will analyze the differences of various indicators from the perspective of genetic to build a bridge between micro-structure and macro-structure for rational utilization of the whole area of Moso bamboo resources in China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 849-858
Liubov Plotnikova ◽  
Igor Plotnikov ◽  
Pavel Ivanov ◽  
Andrey Semenov ◽  
Irina Plotnikova ◽  

Introduction. Products containing natural extracts are in great demand. However, poor production technologies make them too expensive to satisfy consumer demand. As a result, a variety of intensification methods have been developed to increase the economic efficiency of extraction, e.g. low-frequency mechanical vibrations. However, frozen raw materials have to be processed at low temperatures, which makes the method less efficient. The research objective was to intensify the extraction process from frozen berries in a vibration tray device by increasing the temperature of the system of interacting phases. Study objects and methods. The research involved frozen cranberries and blueberries. They grow everywhere in Western Siberia and are rich vitamins and minerals. The berries were subjected to slow freezing at –18°C, which destroyed the cell structure and increased the processing efficiency. The study was carried out in a lab device with a vibrating tray. All parameters were measured by standard methods. Results and discussion. The extraction device was equipped with a jacket into which a coolant was fed, i.e. water with a temperature of 55°C. A preliminary series of experiments revealed two negative aspects associated with the supply of coolant into the jacket. First, the surface layer started to thaw, which reduced the efficiency of grinding. Second, the processing time increased. A new method was developed to solve these problems: the coolant was supplied at the end of the grinding. The time of the coolant supply depended on the type of raw materials. The processes that occurred within the device depended on two factors: the frequency of vibrations of the tray and the diameter of the holes in the tray. These factors could be adjusted to intensify the process, but they increased the power costs and energy consumption. A series of experiments determined the optimal values of these parameters. A mathematical analysis revealed regression equations, i.e. how the destruction time and power costs affected the main parameters. The established optimal process parameters made it possible to determine the minimal time of the destruction process: for cranberries – 2.5 min, for blueberries – 1.5 min. The minimal power consumption was 17.8 watts for cranberries and 11.7 watts for blueberries. Conclusion. The research increased the economic efficiency of the technological process of natural extraction, which can reduce the cost of the finished product and increase its availability. The values of the process parameters can be used to design new similar devices and serve as practical recommendations for berry extraction in vibration tray devices.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110509
Liwen Zhang ◽  
Zhujian Xie ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Junping Zhang ◽  
Qinglun Yu ◽  

A new type of pier anti-collision composite structure composed of honeycomb steel and polyurethane (PU) elastomer was proposed in this study. The impacts of the shape and filling materials of inner core cells on the failure mode, load–displacement cure, bearing capacity, structural stability, and energy absorption were studied by conducting uniaxial compression tests on device segments. Test results showed that the bearing capacity, structural stability, and energy absorption of honeycomb steel structure were significantly improved by PU elastomer filling. Besides, when compared with the square honeycomb structure and the regular hexagon honeycomb structure, the maximum values of average load, total energy absorption (TEA), and specific energy absorption (SEA), which were 69.6 kN, 1986.1 J, and 1300 J/kg, respectively, for the regular triangle honeycomb structure without PU filling, increased to 459.3%, 376.38%, and 212.5%, respectively, for the regular hexagonal core cell structure with PU filling, which was proved to be the most suitable core structure for pier anti-collision device.

Mechanik ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 95 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-14
Mateusz Rudnik

The article presents the results of compressive strength tests of cylindrical samples with a hexagonal cell structure. The samples were made of MED 610 material using the photo-curing technology liquid polymer resins. The compressive strength was estimated on the basis of a static compression test of the printed elements. It has been shown that the PolyJet Matrix 3D printing technology enables the printing models with a thin-walled cell structure, which, while maintaining the appropriate strength properties, can be used in the design and production of certain utility models.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 208
Sidra Saleemi ◽  
Mohamed Amine Aouraghe ◽  
Xiaoxiao Wei ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Li Liu ◽  

The cross-linked hierarchical structure in biological systems provides insight into the development of innovative material structures. Specifically, the sarcoplasmic reticulum muscle is able to transmit electrical impulses in skeletal muscle due to its cross-linked hierarchical tubular cell structure. Inspired by the cross-linked tubular cell structure, we designed and built chemical cross-links between the carbon nanotubes within the carbon nanotube yarn (CNT yarn) structure by an esterification reaction. Consequently, compared with the pristine CNT yarn, its electrical conductivity dramatically enhanced 348%, from 557 S/cm to 1950 S/cm. Furthermore, when applied with three voltages, the electro-thermal temperature of esterified CNT yarn reached 261 °C, much higher than that of pristine CNT yarn (175 °C). In addition, the esterified CNT yarn exhibits a linear and stable piezo-resistive response, with a 158% enhanced gauge factor (the ratio of electrical resistance changing to strain change ~1.9). The superconductivity, flexibility, and stable sensitivity of the esterified flexible CNT yarn demonstrate its great potential in the applications of intelligent devices, smart clothing, or other advanced composites.

2022 ◽  
Qi Long ◽  
Minghui Sun ◽  
Xiaoxue Fan ◽  
Wende Zhang ◽  
Dingding Zhou ◽  

Nosema ceranae is an intracellular fungal parasite for honeybees, leading to chronic disease named bee nosemosis with worldwide distribution. Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) is the original host for N. ceranae, but the impact of N. ceranae infection on A. cerana physiology is largely unknown. In this current work, workers of Apis cerana cerana, a subspecies of Asian honeybee, were artificially inoculated with N. ceranae spores and reared under lab conditions, followed by detection of fungal spore load as well as host sucrose solution consumption, midgut epithelial cell structure, and lifespan. The result of spore counting suggested that the spore load in the host midgut decreased significantly during 1 dpi-2 dpi, whereas that displayed an elevated trend among 2 dpi-13 dpi. The sucrose solution consumption of workers in N. ceranae-inoculated groups among 1 dpi-20 dpi was always higher than that of workers in un-inoculated groups; additionally, the difference of sucrose solution consumption between these two groups at 4 dpi, 5 dpi, and 13 dpi was of significance. Based on microscopic observation of paraffin sections, darkly stained parasites were clearly detected in the midgut epithelial cells of N. ceranae-inoculated workers at 7 dpi-10 dpi, whereas no parasite was observed in those of un-inoculated workers. In addition, the boundaries of un-inoculated host epithelial cells were intact and the darkly stained nucleus were clear, while the boundaries of midgut epithelial cells of N. ceranae-inoculated workers were blurred, the nucleus were almost disappeared, and the nucleic acid substances were diffused. Moreover, the survival rates of workers in both N. ceranae-inoculated groups and un-inoculated groups at 1 dpi-5 dpi were pretty high and then started to decrease at 5 dpi; the survival rate of workers in N. ceranae-inoculated groups was always lower than that in un-inoculated groups, with significant difference between these two groups during 11 dpi-20 dpi. These results together indicate that the quantity of fungal spores continuously elevated with the microsporidian multiplication, causing energetic stress for workers and host cell structure damage, which further negatively affected the host lifespan. Our findings offer a solid basis not only for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying N. ceranae infection but also for investigating the interaction between N. ceranae and eastern honeybee.

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