In this work, we synthesize the sulfonated Schiff bases of the chitosan derivatives 2a-2j without the use of a catalyst in two moderately straightforward steps with good yield within a short reaction time. The morphology and chemical structure of chitosan derivatives were investigated using FT-IR, NMR (1H—13C), XRD, and SEM. Furthermore, our chitosan derivatives were tested for their anticancer activity against the MCF-7 cancer cell line, and doxorubicin was used as a standard. In addition, the normal cell lines of the breast cancer cell MCF-10A, and of the lung cell MRC-5 were tested. Compound 2 h, with a GI50 value of 0.02 µM for MCF-7, is highly active compared with the standard doxorubicin and other compounds. The synthesized compounds 2a-2j exhibit low cytotoxicity, with IC50 > 100 μg/ml, against normal cell lines MCF-10A, MRC-5. We also provide the results of an in-silico study involving the Methoxsalen protein (1Z11). Compound 2h exhibits a higher binding affinity for 1Z11 protein (−5.9 kcal/mol) and a lower binding affinity for Doxorubicin (−5.3 kcal/mol) than certain other compounds. As a result of the aforementioned findings, the use of compound 2h has an anticancer drug will be researched in the future.
The goal of this research is to create a novel Schiff base of chitosan polymer derivatives 1a-1j. Nanotechnology is a promising field since it avoids the usage of hazardous chemicals while also saving time. Using the leaf extract of the pharmacologically valuable herb Mentha piperita, we described a green synthesis of ZnO NPs. Zinc oxide ions may be easily reduced into ZnO NPs using a Mentha piperita extract. ZnO NPs were employed as a phytocatalyst in this investigation to make chitosan derivatives. The synthetic procedure is straightforward, with a short reaction time and a high yield. Our newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR and 13C NMR), and morphology analysis was observed by XRD, SEM, and TEM. In addition, the antibacterial activity was also evaluated against gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Compound 1b is extremely active against gram-negative bacteria (4.0 μg/mL, E. coli), and compound 1h is highly active against gram-positive bacteria (6.0 μg/mL, S. aureus) compared with standard erythromycin and other chitosan derivatives. As a result, compounds 1b and 1h could be a high crucial molecule in the development of antibacterial drugs.
Antibiotics played an important role in controlling the development of enteric infection. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance and gut dysbiosis led to a growing interest in the use of natural antimicrobial agents as alternatives for therapy and disinfection. Chitosan is a nontoxic natural antimicrobial polymer and is approved by GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration). Chitosan and chitosan derivatives can kill microbes by neutralizing negative charges on the microbial surface. Besides, chemical modifications give chitosan derivatives better water solubility and antimicrobial property. This review gives an overview of the preparation of chitosan, its derivatives, and the conjugates with other polymers and nanoparticles with better antimicrobial properties, explains the direct and indirect mechanisms of action of chitosan, and summarizes current treatment for enteric infections as well as the role of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in the antimicrobial agents in enteric infections. Finally, we suggested future directions for further research to improve the treatment of enteric infections and to develop more useful chitosan derivatives and conjugates.