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Author(s):  
Ajayi AO ◽  

This study shows the bactericidal effect of Electromagnetic Field on fruit juice microbes. Short shelf-life period of fruit juice caused by spoilage organisms has limiting factor for its economy value. The Eighteen microorganisms isolated from both fresh and spoilt fruit samples (Pineapple and Apple), and identified during the study include, twelve (12) bacteria and Six (6) fungi, out of which only the bacterial isolates were exposed to electromagnetic field of 0mG, 500mG, and 5000mG for thirty minutes. The bacteria species were Leuconostoc mesentroides, Bacillus species, Lactobacillus brevis, Microbacterium species, Clostridium species, Bacillus cereus, Acetobacter aceti, and Staphylococcus aureus. The Gram negative bacteria isolates were Erwinia carotovora, Erwinia ananas, and Proteus species. Exposure of the isolates to an electromagnetic field of 0mG, 500mG and 5000mG showed a decrease in some electromagnetic field magnitude. This study shows reduction in growth range among most bacterial species tested at 500mG electromagnetic radiation exposure, but the growth of many of these bacterial species were triggered at 5000mG electromagnetic radiation exposure. This may mean an initiation of: adaptation mechanism, growth mechanism in some microorganism, and sugar content of the fruit juice from which they are being isolated. The exposure of the bacteria to electromagnetic field elicited detectable responses therefore depends on the adaptation mechanism of each bacteria and sugar content of the fruit from which it is being isolated from. Thus, future research can be done to optimize the limits specified for target microbes that are strength and frequency of this EMF in diseases control.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 008-013
Author(s):  
Moussa Diawara ◽  
Modibo Coulibaly ◽  
Dramane Samaké ◽  
Soumaila Touré ◽  
Dramane Cissé ◽  
...  

Background: β-lactams and carbapenems. are the major antibiotics used to treat gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacilli. However, the increasing production of β-lactamase and carbapenemase limits the therapeutic options. Our study aims to determine the resistant phenotypes of these bacteria while describing their epidemiological aspect. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study by consecutive enrollment from January 2018 to December 2019 at Sominé DOLO Hospital of Mopti, Mali. We performed manual method for bacteria culture, identification and antibiotics sensitivity testing. The antibiotics sensitivity testing was accessed by the diffusion method according to CA-SFM/EUCAST (“Comité de l’Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie” / European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) recommendations V1.0 february 2018 and V2.0 may 2019 2019 V.2.0. May recommendation released in 2019. Data were analyzed by software R 4.0.3 GUI 1.73 Catalina build (7892). Results: At all 904 samples were included in this study. Out of the 904 cultures, 297 sample (32.85%) were positive. The rates of enzymes production were as follow: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) 56.42% (101/179), cepholosporinase hyperproduction (HCASE) 15.64% (28/179), cephalosporinase production (CASE) 6.14% (11/179), penicillinase hyperproduction (HP) 5.58% (10/179), carbapenemase production (CP) 6.14% (11/179) and savage strains 10.05% (18/179). Conclusion: Our data showed a high prevalence of resistance to β-lactamins ß-talactamins and carbapenemes in gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacillus bacilli. The A high level of β-lactamase and carbapenemase production by gram negative bacillus were also reported by others authors calls for the rational use of antibiotic in hospital setting.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 008-013
Author(s):  
Moussa Diawara ◽  
Modibo Coulibaly ◽  
Dramane Samaké ◽  
Soumaila Touré ◽  
Dramane Cissé ◽  
...  

Background: β-lactams and carbapenems. are the major antibiotics used to treat gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacilli. However, the increasing production of β-lactamase and carbapenemase limits the therapeutic options. Our study aims to determine the resistant phenotypes of these bacteria while describing their epidemiological aspect. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study by consecutive enrollment from January 2018 to December 2019 at Sominé DOLO Hospital of Mopti, Mali. We performed manual method for bacteria culture, identification and antibiotics sensitivity testing. The antibiotics sensitivity testing was accessed by the diffusion method according to CA-SFM/EUCAST (“Comité de l’Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie” / European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) recommendations V1.0 february 2018 and V2.0 may 2019 2019 V.2.0. May recommendation released in 2019. Data were analyzed by software R 4.0.3 GUI 1.73 Catalina build (7892). Results: At all 904 samples were included in this study. Out of the 904 cultures, 297 sample (32.85%) were positive. The rates of enzymes production were as follow: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) 56.42% (101/179), cepholosporinase hyperproduction (HCASE) 15.64% (28/179), cephalosporinase production (CASE) 6.14% (11/179), penicillinase hyperproduction (HP) 5.58% (10/179), carbapenemase production (CP) 6.14% (11/179) and savage strains 10.05% (18/179). Conclusion: Our data showed a high prevalence of resistance to β-lactamins ß-talactamins and carbapenemes in gram-negative bacteria and non-fermenting bacillus bacilli. The A high level of β-lactamase and carbapenemase production by gram negative bacillus were also reported by others authors calls for the rational use of antibiotic in hospital setting.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 75-85
Author(s):  
Abdalhussain A. Khadayeir ◽  
Ahmed H. Wannas ◽  
Falah H. Yousif

Objective: In this study, α-Fe2O3 thin film was formed on a glass substrate to study the impact of adding cold plasma on the self-cleaning and antibacterial properties of the samples. Method: The samples were synthesized using the chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) method at 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscope were used to investigate the morphological and structural characteristics of α-Fe2O3 thin layers prior to and following plasma injection. Finding: The degree of wettability and antibacterial characteristics of iron oxide (hematite) thin film were evaluated in the presence of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria prior to and following plasma injection, given the great potential of plasma injection in the surface modification of thin films. Novelty: The findings indicate that exposing plasma to α-Fe2O3thin film produces substantial changes in morphology, self-cleaning, and antibacterial characteristics. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-01-06 Full Text: PDF


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 288-309
Author(s):  
Govindaraj Vengateswari ◽  
◽  
Kandhasamy Lalitha ◽  
Muthugounder Subramanian Shivakumar ◽  
◽  
...  

Antimicrobial peptides constitute key factors in insect humoral immune response against invading microorganisms. In this study, biochemical approach was identified antimicrobial peptides which appeared in larval hemolymph of Spodoptera litura after bacterial challenge. HPLC profile showed two major peaks in two samples, Brassica oleracea and Ricinus communis fed S. litura that were collected at 5 min interval. It was shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in B. oleracea fed S. litura hemolymph fraction II and R. communis fed S. litura hemolymph fraction I and it also contributes the increased antioxidant, lysozyme, and less hemolytic activity were increase in treated groups. TLC activity was tested with hemolymph extract samples, pink color pots was identified the protein present in the samples. An SDS-PAGE result shows that high expression of antimicrobial peptide present in the treated sample. The appearance of peptides with such different properties in insect hemolymph in response to immune challenge indicates the complexity of the insect immune system.


Author(s):  
Anand Kumar ◽  
Yosra A. Helmy ◽  
Zachary Fritts ◽  
Anastasia Vlasova ◽  
Linda J. Saif ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Tafese Beyene Tufa ◽  
Colin R. Mackenzie ◽  
Hans Martin Orth ◽  
Tobias Wienemann ◽  
Tamara Nordmann ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of death in many low-income countries, such as Ethiopia. Without reliable local data concerning causative pathogens and antimicrobial resistance, empiric treatment is suboptimal. The objective of this study was to characterize gram-negative bacteria (GNB) as pathogens and their resistance pattern in hospitalized patients with infections in central Ethiopia. Methods Patients ≥ 1 year of age with fever admitted to the Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from April 2016 to June 2018 were included. Blood and other appropriate clinical specimens were collected and cultured on appropriate media. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the Kirby–Bauer method and VITEK® 2. Species identification and detection of resistance genes were conducted using MALDI-ToF MS (VITEK® MS) and PCR, respectively. Results Among the 684 study participants, 54.2% were male, and the median age was 22.0 (IQR: 14–35) years. Blood cultures were positive in 5.4% (n = 37) of cases. Among other clinical samples, 60.6% (20/33), 20.8% (5/24), and 37.5% (3/8) of swabs/pus, urine and other body fluid cultures, respectively, were positive. Among 66 pathogenic isolates, 57.6% (n = 38) were GNB, 39.4% (n = 26) were gram-positive, and 3.0% (n = 2) were Candida species. Among the isolated GNB, 42.1% (16/38) were Escherichia coli, 23.7% (9/38) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 10.5% (4/38) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In total, 27/38 gram-negative isolates were available for further analysis. Resistance rates were as follows: ampicillin/sulbactam, 92.6% (n = 25); cefotaxime, 88.9% (n = 24); ceftazidime, 74.1% (n = 20); cefepime, 74.1% (n = 20); gentamicin, 55.6% (n = 15); piperacillin/tazobactam, 48.1% (n = 13); meropenem, 7.4% (n = 2); and amikacin, 3.7% (n = 1). The blaNDM-1 gene was detected in one K. pneumoniae and one Acinetobacter baumannii isolate, which carried an additional blaOXA-51 gene. The ESBL enzymes were detected in 81.5% (n = 22) of isolates as follows: TEM, 77.2% (n = 17); CTX-M-1 group, 68.2% (n = 15); SHV group, 27.3% (n = 6); and CTX-M-9 group, 9.1% (n = 2). Based on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility results, empiric treatment initiated in 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients was likely ineffective. Conclusion We report a high prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria (81.5%) and carbapenem resistance (7.4%), with more than half of GNB carrying two or more ESBL enzymes resulting in suboptimal empiric antibiotic therapy. These findings indicate a need for local and national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and the strengthening of antimicrobial stewardship programs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Fang Zheng

Objective: To investigate the pathogenic characteristics of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure as well as the diagnostic value of soluble myeloid cell expression triggering receptor-1 (sTREM-1), soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducing factor (sTWEAK). Methods: A total of 72 patients with pulmonary infection who were hospitalized with chronic heart failure from December 2017 to December 2019 in the Department of Cardiology of Hebei Baoding Huaying Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, were selected as the infection group, seventy-two patients without pulmonary infection who were hospitalized with chronic heart failure were selected as the non-infection group, and 50 healthy subjects who underwent physical examination in the hospital during the same period were selected as the control group. The distribution characteristics of pathogens in the infection group were statistically analyzed. The levels of sTREM-1, S CD163 and STweak in serum of patients with different infection severity and different cardiac function grades were compared among the three groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was utilized to evaluate the predictive value of the three indicators for the adverse prognosis of patients in hospital. Results: A total of 76 strains of pathogens were cultured from two hospitalized patients with pulmonary infection of chronic heart failure, among which 43 strains (56.58%) were gram-negative bacteria, 29 strains (38.15%) were gram-positive bacteria, and four strains (5.26%) were fungi. The levels of sTREM-1 and sCD163 in the control group, non-infection group and infection group were gradually increased (p<0.05), while there was no difference in sTWEAK between the infection group and the non-infection group (p>0.05). In the infection group, the expression levels of sTREM-1 and sCD163 increased with the severity of infection, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in the expression level of sTWEAK among different infection severity (p>0.05). The higher the cardiac function grade of patients in the infection group, the higher the levels of sTREM-1 and sCD163, and the lower the level of sTWEAK, with a statistical significance (p<0.05). ROC analysis results showed that the serum sTREM-1, sCD163, and sTWEAK levels for the poor prognosis of patients with CHF combined with lung infection had areas under the curve of 0.864, 0.870, and 0.822, respectively, and the 95% CI values were 0.787-0.941, 0.795-0.945 and 0.733-0.910, respectively, all p<0.001. Conclusions: Pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure is mainly caused by gram-negative bacteria. Detection of sTREM-1, sCD163, and sTWEAK levels is of certain value in judging the condition and prognosis, which is worthy of clinical promotion. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4758 How to cite this:Zheng F. Pathogenic characteristics of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure and diagnostic value of sTREM-1, sCD163, and sTWEAK. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4758 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Muhammad Farooq ◽  
Aman Ullah Khan ◽  
Hosny El-Adawy ◽  
Katja Mertens-Scholz ◽  
Iahtasham Khan ◽  
...  

Q fever is a worldwide distributed zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite existence of large amount of research data on the developments related to Q fever, no bibliometric analysis of this subject is available to our knowledge. Bibliometric studies are an essential resource to track scholarly trends and research output in a subject. This study is aimed at reporting a bibliometric analysis of publications related to Q fever (2,840 articles published in the period 1990-2019) retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded, an online database of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science Core Collection. Data was retrieved using keywords “Q fever” or “Coxiella burnetii” in title, abstract, and author keywords to describe important research indicators such as the kind and language of articles, the most important publications, research journals and categories, authors, institutions, and the countries having the most significant contribution to this subject. Finally, the emerging areas in field of diagnosis, host range, and clinical presentation were identified. Word cluster analysis of research related to Q fever revealed that major focus of research has been on zoonosis, seroprevalence, laboratory diagnosis (mainly using ELISA and PCR), clinical manifestations (abortion and endocarditis), vectors (ticks), and hosts (sheep, goat, and cattle). This bibliometric study is intended to visualize the existing research landscape and future trends in Q fever to assist in future knowledge exchange and research collaborations.


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