transmission rate
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With the rapid development of mobile Internet technology, mobile network data traffic presents an explosive growth trend. Especially, the proportion of mobile video business has become a large proportion in mobile Internet business. Mobile video business is considered as a typical business in the 5G network, such as in online education. The growth of video traffic poses a great challenge to mobile network. In order to provide users with better quality of experience (QoE), it requires mobile network to provide higher data transmission rate and lower network delay. This paper adopts a combined optimization to minimize total cost and maximize QoE simultaneously. The optimization problem is solved by ant colony algorithm. The effectiveness is verified on experiment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ruochan Chen ◽  
Ju Zou ◽  
Liyuan Long ◽  
Haiyue Huang ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  

BackgroundTenofovir alafenamide fumarate has been used in late pregnancy; however, no data exist regarding its safety and effectiveness in early and middle pregnancy for mothers with hepatitis B virus infection.AimsTo design a prospective study to investigate the efficacy and safety of TAF in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection during early-middle pregnancy.MethodsPregnant women with active chronic hepatitis B who received tenofovir alafenamide fumarate during early and middle pregnancy were enrolled and followed up until 6 months postpartum. Infants received immunoprophylaxis. The primary endpoint was the safety of mothers and infants. The secondary endpoints were maternal hepatitis B virus DNA reduction at delivery and mother-to-child transmission rate.ResultsAmong 98 mothers enrolled, 31 initiated tenofovir alafenamide fumarate in early pregnancy, and 57 in middle pregnancy. The mean (± standard deviation) age was 29.00 (±3.81) years. At delivery, 100% (98/98) of the mothers achieved hepatitis B virus DNA levels <200,000 IU/L. Ninety-eight infants were born, and none had congenital defects or malformations. All infants received hepatitis B virus immunoprophylaxis. The mother-to-child transmission rate was 0%. Growth parameters including body weight, height, and head circumference were comparable to the national standards for physical development. No severe adverse effects were reported in either mothers or infants. No severe liver function damage occurred in any of the mothers.ConclusionsInitiating tenofovir alafenamide fumarate in early and middle pregnancy appears safe for both mothers and infants, and it is effective for controlling maternal disease as well as interrupting mother-to-child transmission.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Zhongli Yi ◽  
Fuzhai Wang ◽  
Lianjie Jin ◽  
Yueying Zhan

Abstract In this study, we propose an application scheme of free space optical communication technology in INMARSAT, and propose a 1.12 Tbit/s coherent free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization-multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) modulation technology. Based on optisystem software platform, the spectrum, bit error rate (BER), received power, error vector magnitude (EVM), and receiver sensitivity of the edge and middle channels of the system are analyzed. The simulation results show that the transmission rate and channel capacity of INMARSAT communication system are greatly improved by selecting the channel spacing and transmission environment reasonably.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Cong Ma ◽  
Wonjun Chung

With the development of wireless communication technology, video and multimedia have become an integral part of visual communication design. Designers want higher interactivity, diversity, humanization, and plurality of attributes in the process of visual communication. This makes the process of visual communication have high requirements for the quality and real-time data transmission. To address the problem of transmitting HD video in a heterogeneous wireless network with multiple concurrent streams to improve the transmission rate and thus enhance the user experience, with the optimization goal of minimizing the system transmission delay and the delay difference between paths, the video sender and receiver are jointly considered, and the video transmission rate and the cache size at the receiver are adaptively adjusted to improve the user experience, and a cooperative wireless communication video transmission based on the control model for video transmission based on cooperative wireless communication is established, and video streams with self-similarity and long correlation are studied based on Pareto distribution and P / P / l queuing theory, based on which an adaptive streaming decision method for video streams in heterogeneous wireless networks is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed multistream concurrent adaptive transmission control method for heterogeneous networks is superior in terms of delay and packet loss rate compared with the general load balancing streaming decision method, in terms of transmission efficiency and accuracy.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262518
Aurelie Kennedy Nelson ◽  
Tali Cassidy ◽  
Laura Trivino Duran ◽  
Vivian Cox ◽  
Catherine J. Wedderburn ◽  

Background Despite the reduction of HIV mother-to-child transmission, there are concerns regarding transmission rate in the breastfeeding period. We describe the routine uptake of 6 or 10 (6/10) weeks, 9 months and 18 months testing, with and without tracing, in a cohort of infants who received HIV PCR testing at birth (birth PCR) (with and without point of care (POC) testing) in a peri-urban primary health care setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Methods In this cohort study conducted between November 2014 and February 2018, HIV-positive mothers and their HIV-exposed babies were recruited at birth and all babies were tested with birth PCR. Results of routine 6/10 weeks PCR, 9 months and 18 months testing were followed up by a patient tracer. We compared testing at 6/10 weeks with a subgroup from historical cohort who was not tested with birth PCR. Results We found that the uptake of 6/10 weeks testing was 77%, compared to 82% with tracing. When including all infants in the cascade and comparing to a historical cohort without birth testing, we found that infants who tested a birth were 22% more likely to have a 6/10 weeks test compared to those not tested at birth. There was no significant difference between the uptake of 6/10 weeks testing after birth PCR POC versus birth PCR testing without POC. Uptake of 9 months and 18 months testing was 39% and 24% respectively. With intense tracing efforts, uptake increased to 45% and 34% respectively. Conclusion Uptake of HIV testing for HIV-exposed uninfected infants in the first 18 months of life shows good completion of the 6/10 weeks PCR but suboptimal uptake of HIV testing at 9 months and 18 months, despite tracing efforts. Birth PCR testing did not negatively affect uptake of the 6/10 weeks HIV test compared to no birth PCR testing.

2022 ◽  
Jamila S. Alzahrani ◽  
M. K. Halimah ◽  
K. Mahmoud ◽  
M. I. Sayyed ◽  

Abstract The investigation involves a comprehensive study on the mechanical and shielding features of the zinc erbium tellurite glasses as a function of doped Ag2O content. The mechanical features are estimated for the examined glasses by utilizing the Makishima-Makinzie model. The results showed the mechanical moduli of Young (E), bulk (B), Shear (K), and longitudinal (L) increased with the increment of the Ag2O substitution ratio. Besides, the radiation shielding properties were also studied and discussed. Among the shielding parameters, the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), half-value layer (HVL), the lead equivalent and transmission rate (TR) were estimated. The linear attenuation coefficient results illustrated that the TZEAg glasses are better compared to the commercial marketing glasses, especially TZEAg5 glasses. Doping of Ag2O content in zinc erbium tellurite glass improves its ability to attenuate the gamma photons. Also, this study revealed the effectiveness of the examined glasses on the fast neutron, where the fast neutron mass removal cross-section ∑R (cm2/g) computed theoretically. The results offered the maximum value of ∑R = 0.019 cm2/g attained for TZEAg1 while the minimum value ∑R = 0.01884 cm2/g for TZEAg5 glass.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 486
Waseem Ahmed ◽  
Rafia Azmat ◽  
Ebtihal Khojah ◽  
Rasheed Ahmed ◽  
Abdul Qayyum ◽  

Today, the most significant challenge encountered by food manufacturers is degradation in the food quality during storage, which is countered by expensive packing, which causes enormous monetary and environmental costs. Edible packaging is a potential alternative for protecting food quality and improving shelf life by delaying microbial growth and providing moisture and gas barrier properties. For the first time, the current article reports the preparation of the new films from Ditriterpenoids and Secomeliacins isolated from Melia azedarach (Dharek) Azadirachta indica plants to protect the quality of fruits. After evaluating these films, their mechanical, specific respirational, coating crystal elongation, elastic, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), film thickness, and nanoindentation test properties are applied to apple fruit for several storage periods: 0, 3, 6, 9 days. The fruits were evaluated for postharvest quality by screening several essential phytochemical, physiological responses under film coating and storage conditions. It was observed that prepared films were highly active during storage periods. Coated fruits showed improved quality due to the protection of the film, which lowered the transmission rate and enhanced the diffusion rate, followed by an increase in the shelf life. The coating crystals were higher in Film-5 and lower activity in untreated films. It was observed that the application of films through dipping was a simple technique at a laboratory scale, whereas extrusion and spraying were preferred on a commercial scale. The phytochemicals screening of treated fruits during the storage period showed that a maximum of eight important bioactive compounds were present in fruits after the treatment of films. It was resolved that new active films (1–5) were helpful in the effective maintenance of fruit quality and all essential compounds during storage periods. It was concluded that these films could be helpful for fruits growers and the processing industry to maintain fruit quality during the storage period as a new emerging technology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alassane Ouattara ◽  
Fidèle Tiendrébéogo ◽  
Nathalie Becker ◽  
Cica Urbino ◽  
Gaël Thébaud ◽  

AbstractIn recent decades, a legion of monopartite begomoviruses transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci has emerged as serious threats to vegetable crops in Africa. Recent studies in Burkina Faso (West Africa) reported the predominance of pepper yellow vein Mali virus (PepYVMLV) and its frequent association with a previously unknown DNA-B component. To understand the role of this DNA-B component in the emergence of PepYVMLV, we assessed biological traits related to virulence, virus accumulation, location in the tissue and transmission. We demonstrate that the DNA-B component is not required for systemic movement and symptom development of PepYVMLV (non-strict association), but that its association produces more severe symptoms including growth arrest and plant death. The increased virulence is associated with a higher viral DNA accumulation in plant tissues, an increase in the number of contaminated nuclei of the phloem parenchyma and in the transmission rate by B. tabaci. Our results suggest that the association of a DNA-B component with the otherwise monopartite PepYVMLV is a key factor of its emergence.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Yuchen Zhu ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Chunyu Li ◽  
Lili Liu ◽  
Chang Qi ◽  

Background: The current epidemic of COVID-19 has become the new normal. However, the novel coronavirus is constantly mutating. In public transportation or large entertainment venues, it can spread more quickly once an infected person is introduced. This study aims to discuss whether large public facilities can be opened and operated under the current epidemic situation. Methods: The dual Barabási–Albert (DBA) model was used to build a contact network. A dynamics compartmental modeling framework was used to simulate the COVID-19 epidemic with different interventions on the Diamond Princess. Results: The effect of isolation only was minor. Regardless of the transmission rate of the virus, joint interventions can prevent 96.95% (95% CI: 96.70–97.15%) of infections. Compared with evacuating only passengers, evacuating the crew and passengers can avoid about 11.90% (95% CI: 11.83–12.06%) of infections; Conclusions: It is feasible to restore public transportation services and reopen large-scale public facilities if monitoring and testing can be in place. Evacuating all people as soon as possible is the most effective way to contain the outbreak in large-scale public facilities.

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