Background: The process of hepatic fibrosis is common to the various etiologies of chronic liver disease such as viral hepatitis B. Objective: To evaluate hepatic fibrosis by non-invasive markers such as Aspartate-to-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), fibrotest and fibroscan. Patients and Method: This was a descriptive study during a period of 32 months. Included in our study were the records of outpatients, chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus without viral co-infection C, D or HIV, followed in the Gastroenterology unit of the Campus Teaching Hospital of Lome-Togo. Results: We retained 222 patients. Among the patients, 148 patients (66.67%) were classified in Phase 3 (inactive carrying). Only 10 patients (4.50%) had a APRI score indicating a fibrosis stage ≥ F4 (presence of cirrhosis). A FIB-4 score indicating the presence of cirrhosis was found in 12 patients (5.40%). The most represented stage at fibrotest was the F0 stage (45.45%). Cirrhosis was noted in 6.06% of cases at fibroscan. Patients with APRI score ≤ 2 (96.23%) had a FIB-4 score ≤ 3.25, (p = 0.0088). Conclusion: The evaluation of hepatic fibrosis during chronic hepatopathies is essential for patients care because it influences therapeutic decisions.
The United Kingdom’s cases of malaria infection are primarily acquired in sub-Saharan Africa, with the majority of infections presenting in London.1 When patients go to a hospital with malaria, there is a screening opportunity for other geographically associated chronic infections. We identified patients who were diagnosed with malaria after presenting to our emergency department in London over a 2-year period, to assess whether there may be clinical benefit in screening for chronic viral (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV) or parasitic (schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis) infection in this cohort. Over this period, 131 patients were diagnosed with malaria. Crude seropositivity rates for HIV, hepatitis B, and strongyloidiasis were higher than expected compared with local population estimates, 7 and 28 times higher for HIV and hepatitis B, respectively. Those patients with previously unidentified cases were offered appropriate treatment. These findings support the potential clinical and public health benefits of screening for other infectious diseases in the context of a malaria diagnosis.
В статье описано клиническое наблюдение саркомы Капоши, ассоциированной с вирусом иммунодефицита человека, у больного диссеминированным туберкулезом легких, вирусными гепатитами В и С. Саркома Капоши – мультифокальная системная опухоль эндотелиального происхождения с характерными для каждой стадии патогистологическими признаками, ассоциированная с вирусом герпеса человека 8-го типа. Выделяют 4 клинических варианта саркомы Капоши: классическая, эндемическая, эпидемическая, ассоциированная с синдромом приобретенного иммунодефицита, иммунносупрессивная. Вариант саркомы Капоши при инфекции, вызванной вирусом иммунодефицита человека, отличается быстрым прогрессированием патологического процесса и мультифокальным диссеминированием. Приведено клиническое наблюдение пациента с эпидемической саркомой Капоши. Пациент С., 41 год, поступил в Сургутский клинический противотуберкулезный диспансер с жалобами на высыпания на коже всего тела. Первые элементы сыпи появились около двух месяцев назад. Объективно: патологический кожный процесс носил распространенный характер. На коже лица, туловища, конечностей диффузно локализовались многочисленные синюшно-красные пятна от 2 до 5 см в диаметре, с гладкой поверхностью, лентикулярные и нумулярные папулы, узлы до 3 см в диаметре красновато-бурого цвета с фиолетовым оттенком, плотноэластической консистенции. Диагноз саркомы Капоши, ассоциированной с ВИЧ, выставили на основании клинико-анамнестических данных, результатов дополнительных методов исследования. В лечении использовались специфическая противотуберкулезная и противовирусная виды терапии. Несмотря на проводимое лечение, в результате декомпенсации основного процесса наступила смерть больного. Описанное наблюдение иллюстрирует сложность ведения больных с сочетанной инфекционной патологией. Учитывая иммуносупрессию, диссеминированный туберкулез легких, назначение системной цитотоксической терапии затруднено в связи с риском прогрессирования микобактериальной инфекции. Сложность ведения пациентов с эпидемической саркомой Капоши обусловлена также вероятностью полиорганных поражений и высоким потенциалом диссеминации процесса.
The article describes the clinical observation of Kaposi sarcoma associated with HIV in a patient with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis, viral hepatitis B and C. Kaposi sarcoma is a multifocal systemic tumor of endothelial origin with characteristic pathohistological signs associated with the human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8). There are 4 clinical variants of Kaposi sarcoma: classical, endemic, epidemic, AIDS-associated, and immunosuppressive. The Kaposi sarcoma variant in HIV infection is characterized by rapid progression of the pathological process and multifocal dissemination. Clinical observation. Patient S., 41 years old, was admitted to the Surgut clinical tuberculosis dispensary with complaints of rashes on the skin of the entire body. The first elements of the rash appeared about two months ago. Objectively: the pathological skin process was widespread. Numerous bluish-red spots from 2 to 5 cm in diameter with a smooth surface, lenticular and numular papules, nodes up to 3 cm in diameter of a reddish-brown color with a purple hue, dense elastic consistency were diffusely localized on the skin of the face, trunk, and limbs. The diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma associated with HIV was made based on clinical and anamnestic data and the results of additional research methods. Specific anti-tuberculosis and antiviral therapies were used in the treatment. Despite the treatment, the patient died as a result of decompensation of the main process. The described observation illustrates the complexity of managing patients with combined infectious pathology. Taking into account immunosuppression, disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis, the appointment of systemic cytotoxic therapy is difficult due to the risk of progression of Mycobacterium infection. The complexity of managing patients with Kaposi's epidemic sarcoma is also due to the high probability of multi-organ lesions and the high potential for dissemination of the process.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by overproduction of mature granulocytes. Up to half of the patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed during routine blood investigations; others present with fatigue and non-specific symptoms. Many patients develop gastrointestinal manifestations such as abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and pancreatitis during the disease course. Some presentations are related to leukemia itself, while others may be related to CML treatment.
We searched the English literature (PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar) for studies, reviews, case series, and case reports of patients with CML who developed any gastrointestinal manifestations involving the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus down to the rectum Inclusion criteria comprised of patients above 18 years of age, with CML and gastrointestinal features. Pregnant women and bone marrow transplant recipients were excluded. Search terms included chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, with esophagitis, pancreatitis, duodenitis, gastritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, colon cancer, malignancy, hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and perforation.
A total of 129 patients were included. Patient characteristics are shown in table 1. Among the gastrointestinal manifestations, the most common treatment-related complications were drug-related hepatitis followed by reactivation of viral hepatitis B, pancreatitis, and typhlitis. Hepatitis in CML was reported with different TKIs but more commonly with imatinib. Reactivation of viral hepatitis B was common, while hepatitis C reactivation was rarely reported. Pancreatitis was associated mostly with nilotinib. Colitis is seen mainly with dasatinib. Inflammatory bowel diseases, liver diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), were variable; some occurred after CML diagnosis while others preceded the diagnosis. Malignancies like pancreatic adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred after CML.
Gastrointestinal features in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia can be the first presenting featuring of leukemia itself, arising during the course of CML or as a complication of the treatment. Interestingly, most of these presentations have been reported in patients with CML. These include inflammatory conditions such as pancreatitis and esophagitis, reactivation of viral hepatitis to the neoplastic process, and malignancy. In patients with CML, malignant tumors in the gastrointestinal tract can be caused by leukemic infiltration. Moreover, like other myeloproliferative neoplasms, CML confers a risk of developing a second non-hematological malignancy, including colonic neoplasms.
Gastrointestinal complications can pose drastic impacts throughout the disease course; they may result in a change in the treatment, affect the prognosis, and may also be fatal, as in severe enterocolitis or fulminant liver failure. The treatment goal in patients with CML has changed significantly over the last decades. The current treatment goal is to achieve normal survival and good quality of life without the need for lifelong treatment. The improvement in CML treatment and prognosis is largely attributed to the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, most gastrointestinal features associated with treatment are related to tyrosine kinase. The exact pathogenesis of TKI injury is unclear but likely attributed to immune-related mechanisms. Imatinib is the first-line therapy for CML and is the most widely used TKI; however, not all the gastrointestinal features are associated with imatinib as expected. Various gastrointestinal features are prominent with other TKIs as well. Appropriately identifying which TKI is the likely trigger will help in avoiding highly suspected gastrointestinal complications or guide in switching to a safer TKI, thereby achieving treatment goals.
Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia can have a different gastrointestinal presentation which can alter their disease course. Such complications must be managed appropriately in order to improve outcome and quality of life in this group of patients and maintain treatment goals.
Figure 1 Figure 1.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.