Tall Fescue
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2021 ◽  
Angela Bernardon ◽  
Tiago Miqueloto ◽  
Fábio Luis Winter ◽  
Cauby Medeiros Neto ◽  
André Fischer Sbrissia

2021 ◽  
Vol 237 ◽  
pp. 106694
Yasuko Togamura ◽  
Kazuhiro Uchiyama ◽  
Fumiaki Akiyama ◽  
Kiyoshi Hirano ◽  
Daigo Yamada ◽  

2021 ◽  
Kishan Mahmud ◽  
Kendall Lee ◽  
Nicholas Hill ◽  
Ali Missaoui

Abstract Background Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire) is a popular perennial grass species for livestock production and amenities in the United States. Tall fescue often forms a symbiotic relationship with fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) which provides increased plant tolerance to environmental stress compared to endophyte-free plants. However, whether this improved plant performance is the sole result of the unique relationship between the grass and the shoot-dwelling fungal endophyte of rhizosphere origin remains a question. This symbiosis possibly regulates the recruitment of beneficial soil microbial communities in endophyte-infected tall fescue rhizosphere and may offer enhanced nutrients and water acquisition, thereby, providing the plant with an increased tolerance level against environmental stresses. We compared the soil bacterial and fungal community composition and investigated possible community shifts in soil microbial populations based on endophyte infection in tall fescue by analyzing the 16s rRNA gene and ITS specific region. Results Our data revealed that bacterial community richness and the evenness indicated by Shannon Diversity Index (SDI) was greater than 4 in both endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue soil. In both types tall fescue soil, the prominent bacterial families were Planctomycetaceae, Balstocatellaceae_(subgroup_4), Chitinophagaceae, and Bacillaceae. In the case of soil fungal diversity, the SDI was overall low and ranged between 1.21 for endophyte-free and 1.27 for endophyte-infected tall fescue soil. The prominent fungal phyla were Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, and we observed a clear fungal community difference between endophyte-infected and endophyte-free soil at the phylum level. Moreover, endophyte-infected tall fescue soil showed a greater diversity at the genus level compared to endophyte-free tall fescue soil. In addition, plant-available soil phosphorus (P) is also influenced by the presence of endophytes in tall fescue. Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a tripartite relationship between tall fescue, the presence of fungal endophyte in the tall fescue, and the below-ground soil fungal communities. The dynamic of this three-way interaction perhaps contributes to the nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance by tall fescue possibly by recruiting a diverse array of potentially beneficial soil microbes.

2021 ◽  
Md. Shofiqul Islam ◽  
Nick Krom ◽  
Taegun Kwon ◽  
Guifen Li ◽  
Malay Saha

Abstract Tall fescue is one of the primary source of forage for livestock. It grows well in the marginal soils of the temperate zones. It hosts a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala), which helps the plants to tolerate abiotic and biotic stresses. The genetics and biology underlying mechanism of freezing stress tolerance of tall fescue is still unknown, due to its complex genetic background and outbreeding modes of pollination, limited genomic, and transcriptomic resources. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in two tissues between novel endophyte-positive (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue genotypes at three diurnal time points; in the morning (-3.0 to 0.5°C), afternoon (11 to 12°C), and evening (12 − 10°C) in the field environment, by exploring the transcriptional landscape via RNA sequencing. For the first time, we generated 226,054 and 224,376 transcripts from E + and E- Texoma MaxQ II tall fescue, respectively by de novo assembly. The upregulated transcripts were detected fewer than the downregulated ones in both tissues (S: 803 up and 878 down; L: 783 up and 846 down) under the freezing temperatures in the morning. By Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, 10 GO terms were found only under the freezing stress in the morning. Metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites genes showed lowest number of DEGs under morning freezing stress and highest number in evening cold condition by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis. The DEGs expressed under morning stress condition and the nine candidate genes that we identified using GO analysis, might be the possible route underlying cold tolerance in tall fescue.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Suraj Sapkota ◽  
Paul Raymer ◽  
Alfredo Martinez-Espinoza ◽  
Bochra Amina Bahri

Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by P. coronata, are common rust diseases on cool-season grasses (Karakkat et al. 2018), for which long-distance spore dispersal was recorded in northern US (Harder and Haber 1992). During the summers of 2019 and 2020, severe infection of stem rust and crown rust was observed on > 60% of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) germplasm plants in a breeding nursery located at the University of Georgia, Griffin GA. Rust-infected leaves first presented uredinia pustules, then black telia towards the end of the season. The uredinia pustules of stem rust and crown rust were brick-red and, yellow and arranged along the host veins, respectively. The urediniospores were one-celled, round to ovoid and measured from 20.75±2.44 μm (crown rust) to 27±3.60 μm long (stem rust). The teliospores were two-celled and measured from 45.75±10.14 μm (stem rust) to 51.60±4.0 μm long (crown rust) (Leonard et al. 2005; Cummins 1971). Urediniospores of both rusts were collected from infected plants in the field in April of 2020 using a Piston vacuum pump (Welch by Gardner Denver Ltd.) and stored at -80 °C in 1.5 ml Eppendorf tubes. Genomic DNA was extracted by grinding the urediniospores in liquid nitrogen using mortar and pestle, followed by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method (Doyle and Doyle 1987). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA was amplified using the ITS5-ITS4 primers (White et al. 1990). BLASTn and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the sequence of stem rust (GenBank acc. no. MW430963) and crown rust (GenBank acc. no. MW431324) pathogens had >99% similarity with P. graminis (GenBank acc. no. HQ317538) and P. coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae (clade V; Liu and Hambleton 2013) (GenBank acc. no. EU014044), respectively. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on the tall fescue cultivar ‘Bandit’. For each rust, 12 pots (10 cm × 10 cm) were planted, each containing 13 seeds in a Sungro professional growing mix soil (Sun Gro Horticulture Distribution Inc.). The plant materials were kept in the greenhouse at 20°C/ 25°C (night/day),15-hrs of light, and watered twice a week for 4-weeks. Urediniospores were recovered from -80°C and allowed to acclimate at room temperature for 1 h. For each rust, 20 ml of suspension containing 1×105 urediniospores ml−1 and 5 μl of Tween-twenty (Agdia Inc. Elkhart, IN) were used to inoculate 6 pots; while 6 control pots were sprayed with sterile water. After inoculation, plants were allowed to dry for 1 h and then transferred to a dark chamber at 20°C and 90% of humidity for 12-15 h. At 10-days post inoculation, all inoculated plants developed rust symptoms identical to those observed in the field, whereas control plants had no symptoms. Stem and crown rust pathogens were re-isolated from the artificially inoculated tall fescue plants. Based on form, size, color and numbers of cells forming the spores, a 1947 Festuca elatior specimen from Georgia mentioning Puccinia coronata (Hanlin 1966), held at the Julian H. Miller Mycological Herbarium (Catalog No. GAM00013162), was discarded as an earlier record of P. coronata var. avenae and could have been misdiagnosed. Due to the fragile integrity of the original infected plant sample as well as the incipient infection, DNA identification was unsuccessful. To our knowledge, this is the first morphological, genetic and taxonomic report of P. graminis and P. coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae on tall fescue in Georgia, USA

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Florence Breuillin-Sessoms ◽  
Dominic P. Petrella ◽  
Daniel Sandor ◽  
Samuel J. Bauer ◽  
Brian P. Horgan

Consumers often have multiple choices when purchasing retail lawn products in stores. In this study, we evaluated the acute drought performance of locally available retail lawn seed products (mixtures or blends) at two mowing heights of 2.5 and 3 inches. We hypothesized that the species present in the products and the height-of-cut differentially influence the drought resistance and recovery of the mixtures and blends. In Fall 2016 and 2017, 28 different products consisting of 25 mixtures and 3 blends of turfgrass seeds were established under a fully automated rainout shelter at the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota. The drought treatments lasted for 67 days in 2017, and 52 days in 2018; both the 2017 and 2018 treatments were followed by a recovery period. Data were obtained during acute drought treatments and recovery periods for visual turfgrass quality and green turfgrass cover using digital images of the plots. During the first year, several products displayed higher green stability (or the ability to remain green) at the 3-inch height-of-cut compared with the 2.5-inch height-of-cut. Products with tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and fine fescue (Festuca sp.) as dominant species generally performed better during the drought treatments, whereas an increasing presence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) decreased the visual drought performance of the products. During the recovery period, an effect of the interaction between mowing height and the date of data collection on the percentage of green cover was observed: the lower mowing height improved the early recovery of green cover after acute drought. These findings suggest that consumers in the upper midwestern United States and areas with a climate similar climate to that of St. Paul, MN, who are challenged with multiple choices of lawn seed products should choose products containing a higher tall fescue content and adjust their mowing heights to optimize recovery.

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