gulf stream
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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
Yuri Pivovarenko

Due to the existence of the Earth's geomagnetic field, Lorentz’s forces constantly act on all sea currents. These forces distribute the charges of sea currents in both vertical and horizontal directions. In particular, this distribution manifests itself in the electric polarization of sea currents in directions perpendicular to them. So, earlier it was shown that the same Lorentz forces cause negative electrization of the Sargasso Sea. It is also shown here that the positive electrization of the western edge of the Gulf Stream and, consequently, the eastern coast of the United States is also caused by the Lorentz force arising from the interaction of this sea current with the vertical component of the geomagnetic field. It is also shown here that the positive electrization of east edge of California Current together with west coast of USA is also caused due to the similar reasons. All this allows us to conclude that an increased concentration of positive air ions is constantly retained in the air both in the east and in the west of the United States. This situation has caused the need for an analysis of how the predominantly positive electrization of the air affects both human health and their physical and mental activity. The results of this analysis are presented here. It is also shown that these results can be useful for residents of some other countries.

Takaya Uchida ◽  
Quentin Jamet ◽  
Andrew Poje ◽  
William K. Dewar

Harry L. Bryden

Continuous observations of ocean circulation at 26°N in the subtropical Atlantic Ocean have been made since April 2004 to quantify the strength and variability in the Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), in which warm, upper waters flow northward and colder deep waters below 1100 m depth return southward. The principal components of the AMOC are northward western boundary current transport in the Gulf Stream and Antilles Current, northward surface Ekman transport and southward thermocline recirculation, all of which are generally considered to be part of the wind-driven circulation. Southward flowing deep waters below 1100 m depth are usually considered to represent the buoyancy-driven circulation. We argue that the Gulf Stream is partially wind-driven but also partially buoyancy-driven as it returns upper waters upwelled in the global ocean back to water mass formation regions in the northern Atlantic. Seasonal to interannual variations in the circulation at 26°N are principally wind-driven. Variability in the buoyancy-driven circulation occurred in a sharp reduction in 2009 in the southward flow of Lower North Atlantic Deep Water when its transport decreased by 30% from pre-2009 values. Over the 14-year observational period from 2004 to 2018, the AMOC declined by 2.4 Sv from 18.3 to 15.9 Sv.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Mattias Arrhenius ◽  
Gabriel Bladh ◽  
Cecilia Lundholm

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1233
Yuyao Liu ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  
Wen Chen ◽  
Lina Ma ◽  

As one of the most common mesoscale phenomena in the ocean, the ocean front is defined as a narrow transition zone between two water masses with obviously different properties. In this study, we proposed an ocean front reconstruction method based on the K-means algorithm iterative hierarchical clustering sound speed profile (SSP). This method constructed the frontal zone from the perspective of SSP. Meanwhile, considering that acoustic ray tracing is a very sensitive tool for detecting the location of ocean fronts because of the strong dependence of the transmission loss (TL) on SSP structure, this paper verified the feasibility of the method from the perspective of the TL calculation. Compared with other existing methods, this method has the key step of iterative hierarchical clustering according to the accuracy of clustering results. The results of iterative hierarchical clustering of the SSP can reconstruct the ocean front. Using this method, we reconstructed the ocean front in the Gulf Stream-related sea area and obtained the three-dimensional structure of the Gulf Stream front (GSF). The three-dimensional structure was divided into seven layers in the depth range of 0–1000 m. Iterative hierarchical clustering SSP by K-means algorithm provides a new method for judging the frontal zone and reconstructing the geometric model of the ocean front in different depth ranges.

2021 ◽  
Vol 128 (2) ◽  
Peter Schuchert ◽  
Richard Collins

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Rujia Bi ◽  
Yan Jiao ◽  
Joan A. Browder

AbstractBycatch in fisheries is a major threat to many seabird species. Understanding and predicting spatiotemporal changes in seabird bycatch from fisheries might be the key to mitigation. Inter-annual spatiotemporal patterns are evident in seabird bycatch of the U.S. Atlantic pelagic longline fishery monitored by the National Marine Fisheries Service Pelagic Observer Program (POP) since 1992. A newly developed fast computing Bayesian approximation method provided the opportunity to use POP data to understand spatiotemporal patterns, including temporal changes in location of seabird bycatch hotspots. A Bayesian model was developed to capture the inherent spatiotemporal structure in seabird bycatch and reduce the bias caused by physical barriers such as coastlines. The model was applied to the logbook data to estimate seabird bycatch for each longline set, and the mid-Atlantic bight and northeast coast were the fishing areas with the highest fleet bycatch estimate. Inter-annual changes in predicted bycatch hotspots were correlated with Gulf Stream meanders, suggesting that predictable patterns in Gulf Stream meanders could enable advanced planning of fishing fleet schedules and areas of operation. The greater the Gulf Stream North Wall index, the more northerly the seabird bycatch hotspot two years later. A simulation study suggested that switching fishing fleets from the hindcasted actual bycatch hotspot to neighboring areas and/or different periods could be an efficient strategy to decrease seabird bycatch while largely maintaining fishers’ benefit.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Shuqin Zhang ◽  
Chunlei Liu ◽  
Jianjun Xu ◽  
Shaojing Zhang ◽  
Ruoying Tang ◽  

Contributions of different physical processes to the development of a super explosive cyclone (SEC) migrating over the Gulf Stream with the maximum deepening rate of 3.45 Bergeron were investigated using the ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The evolution of the SEC resembled the Shapiro-Keyser model. The moisture transported to the bent-back front by easterlies from Gulf Stream favored precipitation and enhanced the latent heat release. The bent-back front and warm front were dominated by the water vapor convergence in the mid-low troposphere, the cyclonic-vorticity advection in the mid-upper troposphere and the divergence in the upper troposphere. These factors favored the rapid development of the SEC, but their contributions showed significant differences during the explosive-developing stage. The diagnostic results based on the Zwack-Okossi equation suggested that the early explosive development of the SEC was mainly forced by the diabatic heating in the mid-low troposphere. From the early explosive-developing moment to maximum-deepening-rate moment, the diabatic heating, warm-air advection and cyclonic-vorticity advection were all enhanced significantly, their combination forced the most explosive development, and the diabatic heating had the biggest contribution, followed by the warm-air advection and cyclonic-vorticity advection, which is different from the previous studies of ECs over the Northwestern Atlantic. The cross section of these factors suggested that during the rapid development, the cyclonic-vorticity advection was distributed and enhanced significantly in the mid-low troposphere, the warm-air advection was strengthened significantly in the mid-low and upper troposphere, and the diabatic heating was distributed in the middle troposphere.

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