shortest path routing
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Hala Khankhour ◽  
Otman Abdoun ◽  
Jâafar Abouchabaka

<span>This article presents a new approach of integrating parallelism into the genetic algorithm (GA), to solve the problem of routing in a large ad hoc network, the goal is to find the shortest path routing. Firstly, we fix the source and destination, and we use the variable-length chromosomes (routes) and their genes (nodes), in our work we have answered the following question: what is the better solution to find the shortest path: the sequential or parallel method?. All modern systems support simultaneous processes and threads, processes are instances of programs that generally run independently, for example, if you start a program, the operating system spawns a new process that runs parallel elements to other programs, within these processes, we can use threads to execute code simultaneously. Therefore, we can make the most of the available central processing unit (CPU) cores. Furthermore, the obtained results showed that our algorithm gives a much better quality of solutions. Thereafter, we propose an example of a network with 40 nodes, to study the difference between the sequential and parallel methods, then we increased the number of sensors to 100 nodes, to solve the problem of the shortest path in a large ad hoc network.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 438
Xiaosong Yu ◽  
Jiye Wang ◽  
Kaixin Zhang ◽  
Jiaqi Lv ◽  
Yongli Zhao ◽  

With the development of optical networks technology, broad attention has been paid to flexible grid technology in optical networks due to its ability to carry large-capacity information as well as provide flexible and fine-grained services through on-demand spectrum resource allocation. However, a one-time green-field deployment of a flexible grid network may not be practical. The transition technology called the fixed/flex-grid optical networks is more applicable and highly pragmatic. In such network, many nodes would likely be upgraded from a fixed-grid to flex-grid. In fact, dynamic service provisioning during the process of a node upgrade in fixed/flex-grid optical networks have become a challenge because the service connection can be easily interrupted, which leads to considerable data loss because of node upgrade. To overcome this challenge, we propose a brown-field migration aware routing and spectrum assignment (BMA-RSA) algorithm in fixed/flex-grid optical networks. The aim is to construct a probabilistic migration label (PML) model. The well-designed label setting of PML can balance the relationship between distance and node-upgrade probability. Dynamic service provisioning operations are undertaken based on the PML model to achieve a migration-aware dynamic connection before network migration occurs. We also evaluate the performance of different service provisioning strategies under different traffic models. The simulation results show that the BMA-RSA algorithm can achieve: (1) the tradeoff between distance and node upgrade probability during the process of service provisioning; (2) lower service interruption compared with the traditional non-migration aware K-shortest-path routing and spectrum assignment algorithm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (12) ◽  
pp. 123402
Qing Wu ◽  
Qing-Yang Liu ◽  
Xiang Ling ◽  
Li-Jun Zhang

Abstract In real communication or transportation systems, loss of agents is very common due to finite storage capacity. We study the traffic dynamics in finite buffer networks and propose a routing strategy motivated by a heuristic algorithm to alleviate packet loss. Under this routing strategy, the traffic capacity is further improved, comparing to the shortest path routing strategy and efficient routing strategy. Then we investigate the effect of this routing strategy on the betweenness of nodes. Through dynamic routing changes, the maximum node betweenness of the network is greatly reduced, and the final betweenness of each node is almost the same. Therefore, the routing strategy proposed in this paper can balance the node load, thereby effectively alleviating packet loss.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 10504
Tabinda Ashraf ◽  
Steven S. W. Lee ◽  
Muhammad Iqbal ◽  
Jen-Yi Pan

Distributed link-state routing protocols, including Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System–Intermediate System (IS-IS), have successfully provided robust shortest path routing for IP networks. However, shortest path routing is inflexible and sometimes results in congestion on some critical links. By separating the control plane and the data plane, the centralized control of Software Defined Networking (SDN)-based approach possesses flexible routing capabilities. Fibbing is an approach that can achieve centralized control over a network running distributed routing protocols. In a Fibbing-controlled IP network, the controller cleverly generates fake protocol messages to manipulate routers to steer the flow of the desired paths. However, introducing fake nodes destroys the structure of the loop-free property of Loop-Free Alternate (LFA) that is used to achieve fast failure recovery in IP networks. This paper addresses this issue and presents a solution to provision routing paths so a Fibbing network can still apply LFA in the network. The proposed network jointly considers load-balanced and fast failure recovery. We formulate the problem as an integer linear programming problem. The numerical results reveal that the proposed method can provide 100% survivability against any single node or single link failure.

Sidhant Misra ◽  
Line Roald ◽  
Yeesian Ng

In many engineered systems, optimization is used for decision making at time scales ranging from real-time operation to long-term planning. This process often involves solving similar optimization problems over and over again with slightly modified input parameters, often under tight latency requirements. We consider the problem of using the information available through this repeated solution process to learn important characteristics of the optimal solution as a function of the input parameters. Our proposed method is based on learning relevant sets of active constraints, from which the optimal solution can be obtained efficiently. Using active sets as features preserves information about the physics of the system, enables interpretable results, accounts for relevant safety constraints, and is easy to represent and encode. However, the total number of active sets is also very large, as it grows exponentially with system size. The key contribution of this paper is a streaming algorithm that learns the relevant active sets from training samples consisting of the input parameters and the corresponding optimal solution, without any restrictions on the problem type, problem structure or probability distribution of the input parameters. The algorithm comes with theoretical performance guarantees and is shown to converge fast for problem instances with a small number of relevant active sets. It can thus be used to establish simultaneously learn the relevant active sets and the practicability of the learning method. Through case studies in optimal power flow, supply chain planning, and shortest path routing, we demonstrate that often only a few active sets are relevant in practice, suggesting that active sets provide an appropriate level of abstraction for a learning algorithm to target.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Shahana Gajala Qureshi ◽  
Shishir Kumar Shandilya

WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) is a network of devices which can transfer the data collected from an examined field via wireless links. Thus secure data transmission is required for accurate transfer of data from source to destination as data passes through various intermediate nodes. The study intends to perform shortest, secure path routing on the basis of trust through novel Hybridized Crow Whale Optimization (H-CWO) and QoS based bipartite Coverage Routing (QOS-CR) as well as to analyze the system’s performance. Nodes are randomly deployed in the network area. Initially, a trust metric formation is implemented via novel H-CWO and the authenticated nodes are selected. Then through the secure routing protocol, Cluster head (CH) is selected to perform clustering. Neighbourhood hop prediction is executed to determine the shortest path routing and secure data transfer is performed through novel QOS-CR. The proposed system is analyzed by comparing it with various existing methods in terms of delay, throughput, energy and alive nodes. The results attained from comparative analysis revealed the efficiency of the proposed system. The proposed novel H-CWO and QOS-CR exhibited minimum delay, high throughput, energy and maximum alive nodes thereby ensuring safe transmission of data from source node to destination node.

Algorithms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
pp. 164
Tobias Rupp ◽  
Stefan Funke

We prove a Ω(n) lower bound on the query time for contraction hierarchies (CH) as well as hub labels, two popular speed-up techniques for shortest path routing. Our construction is based on a graph family not too far from subgraphs that occur in real-world road networks, in particular, it is planar and has a bounded degree. Additionally, we borrow ideas from our lower bound proof to come up with instance-based lower bounds for concrete road network instances of moderate size, reaching up to 96% of an upper bound given by a constructed CH. For a variant of our instance-based schema applied to some special graph classes, we can even show matching upper and lower bounds.

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