ad hoc network
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Author(s):  
Jiří Jelínek ◽  
Jiří Čejka ◽  
Josef Šedivý

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are a today´s hot topic, especially in the context of the development of information technologies, which can be employed in transportation. Although the scope and the technical solution of these systems may vary, they are frequently based on VANET (Vehicular ad hoc network), i.e. a communication network, which is primarily generated among the moving subjects, which form ITS. Given the highly dynamic VANET, the questions are raised as to the data transmission. This paper is aimed to make a detail analysis of the communications within VANET using the simulation model, which includes the static infrastructure of ITS and to experimentally verify the impact of this infrastructure on the dynamics of information spreading in ITS. The authors present the results obtained from a few different scenarios, which have been tested.


Author(s):  
Hala Khankhour ◽  
Otman Abdoun ◽  
Jâafar Abouchabaka

<span>This article presents a new approach of integrating parallelism into the genetic algorithm (GA), to solve the problem of routing in a large ad hoc network, the goal is to find the shortest path routing. Firstly, we fix the source and destination, and we use the variable-length chromosomes (routes) and their genes (nodes), in our work we have answered the following question: what is the better solution to find the shortest path: the sequential or parallel method?. All modern systems support simultaneous processes and threads, processes are instances of programs that generally run independently, for example, if you start a program, the operating system spawns a new process that runs parallel elements to other programs, within these processes, we can use threads to execute code simultaneously. Therefore, we can make the most of the available central processing unit (CPU) cores. Furthermore, the obtained results showed that our algorithm gives a much better quality of solutions. Thereafter, we propose an example of a network with 40 nodes, to study the difference between the sequential and parallel methods, then we increased the number of sensors to 100 nodes, to solve the problem of the shortest path in a large ad hoc network.</span>


Author(s):  
Salman Ali Syed ◽  
Shahzad Ali

Secure data transfer in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) against malicious attacks is of immense importance. In this paper, we propose a new enhanced trust model for securing the MANET using trust-based scheme that uses both blind trust and referential trust. In order to do this, the trust relationship function has to be integrated with the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol for making the protocol more secure. We thoroughly analyze the DSR protocol and generate the performance matrices for the data pertaining to packets sent, packets received, packets loss, and throughput. We also analyze the outcome attained from the improvised trust establishment scheme by using the three algorithm implementations in NS2 simulator for detecting and preventing various types of attacks.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Author(s):  
Yelena Trofimova ◽  
Pavel Tvrdík

In wireless ad hoc networks, security and communication challenges are frequently addressed by deploying a trust mechanism. A number of approaches for evaluating trust of ad hoc network nodes have been proposed, including the one that uses neural networks. We proposed to use packet delivery ratios as input to the neural network. In this article, we present a new method, called TARA (Trust-Aware Reactive Ad Hoc routing), to incorporate node trusts into reactive ad hoc routing protocols. The novelty of the TARA method is that it does not require changes to the routing protocol itself. Instead, it influences the routing choice from outside by delaying the route request messages of untrusted nodes. The performance of the method was evaluated on the use case of sensor nodes sending data to a sink node. The experiments showed that the method improves the packet delivery ratio in the network by about 70%. Performance analysis of the TARA method provided recommendations for its application in a particular ad hoc network.


Author(s):  
Volodymyr Kharchenko ◽  
Andrii Grekhov ◽  
Vasyl Kondratiuk

The purpose of this article is to simulate data transmission and calculate traffic parameters in SAGIN air segment for which Ad Hoc network of flying drones is considered as a model. Traffic modeling is based on the manet-routing-compare example from the ns3 simulator library, which has been supplemented with the code for calculation packet losses, throughput/goodput, and message transmission delays. The program allowed considering drones movement at both low and high speeds from 3.6 km/h to 72 km/h. The dependences of traffic losses on data transmission power, transaction sizes and data transmission rate are obtained and analyzed. The distribution of the average effective arrival rate &lambda; and the throughput/goodput for drones has been studied. Comparing traffic characteristics in models with different numbers of drones allows judging how the required quality of service can be achieved by choosing the right transmission parameters.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ajay Kumar Vyas ◽  
Margam Suthar

Abstract A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a network of mobile nodes short of Infrastructure, linked by wireless links. While mobility is the key feature of MANETs, the frequent movement of nodes may lead to link failure. A mobile multi-hop wireless ad hoc network carries a dynamic structure feature, and each node has mobility; due to this, the network has altered topology change dynamically. Developing the wireless ad hoc network protocol is the major challenge because, compared to the wired routing node, all node is mobile, energy limitation, the node's physical location, and multicast routing. In this article, a comparative investigation of routing protocol performance for large wireless ad hoc networks (100 nodes) under the impact of the random mobile environment with the velocity of 30 m/sec for 1800 seconds with ten different results for each node-set. The comparative analysis includes packet delivery ratio, throughput, packet dropping ratio, routing overhead, and end-to-end delay quality of service (QoS) metrics. It concludes that Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector protocol performance is more stable as the number of nodes & traffic increase in the random mobility environment.


Drones ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Author(s):  
Arun Sekar Rajasekaran ◽  
Azees Maria ◽  
Fadi Al-Turjman ◽  
Chadi Altrjman ◽  
Leonardo Mostarda

As there has been an advancement in avionic systems in recent years, the enactment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has upgraded. As compared to a single UAV system, multiple UAV systems can perform operations more inexpensively and efficiently. As a result, new technologies between user/control station and UAVs have been developed. FANET (Flying Ad-Hoc Network) is a subset of the MANET (Mobile Ad-Hoc Network) that includes UAVs. UAVs, simply called drones, are used for collecting sensitive data in real time. The security and privacy of these data are of priority importance. Therefore, to overcome the privacy and security threats problem and to make communication between the UAV and the user effective, a competent anonymous mutual authentication scheme is proposed in this work. There are several methodologies addressed in this work such as anonymous batch authentication in FANET which helps to authenticate a large group of drones at the same time, thus reducing the computational overhead. In addition, the integrity preservation technique helps to avoid message alteration during transmission. Moreover, the security investigation section discusses the resistance of the proposed work against different types of possible attacks. Finally, the proposed work is related to the prevailing schemes in terms of communication and computational cost and proves to be more efficient.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 535
Author(s):  
Wenbo Suo ◽  
Mengyang Wang ◽  
Dong Zhang ◽  
Zhongjun Qu ◽  
Lei Yu

The formation control technology of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm is a current research hotspot, and formation switching and formation obstacle avoidance are vital technologies. Aiming at the problem of formation control of fixed-wing UAVs in distributed ad hoc networks, this paper proposed a route-based formation switching and obstacle avoidance method. First, the consistency theory was used to design the UAV swarm formation control protocol. According to the agreement, the self-organized UAV swarm could obtain the formation waypoint according to the current position information, and then follow the corresponding rules to design the waypoint to fly around and arrive at the formation waypoint at the same time to achieve formation switching. Secondly, the formation of the obstacle avoidance channel was obtained by combining the geometric method and an intelligent path search algorithm. Then, the UAV swarm was divided into multiple smaller formations to achieve the formation obstacle avoidance. Finally, the abnormal conditions during the flight were handled. The simulation results showed that the formation control technology based on distributed ad hoc network was reliable and straightforward, easy to implement, robust in versatility, and helpful to deal with the communication anomalies and flight anomalies with variable topology.


Author(s):  
Ajay Vyas ◽  
Margam Suthar

Mobility models are used to evaluated the network protocols of the ad hoc network using the simulation. The random waypoint model is a model for mobility which is usually used for performance evaluation of ad-hoc mobile network. Mobile nodes have the dynamic mobility in the ad hoc network so the mobility model plays an important role to evaluate the protocol performance.In this article, we developed modify random waypoint mobility (MRWM) model based on random waypoint for the mobile ad hoc network. In this article, the comparative analysis of modifying random waypoint mobility and random waypoint model on the ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol has been done for large wireless ad hoc network (100 nodes) with the random mobile environment for the 1800s simulation time. To enhance the confidence on the protocol widespread simulations were accomplished under heavy traffic (i.e. 80 nodes) condition. The proposed model protocol has been investigated with the performance metrics: throughput; packet delivery ratio; packet dropping ratio; the end to end delay and normalized routing overhead. The obtained results revealed that proposed modify random waypoint mobility model reduces the mobility as compared to the random waypoint mobility model and it is trace is more realist.


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